Law Resources

On our free law resources page we have contract, criminal, tort, family, money laundering, EU and EC, family, land, employment, human rights, immigration, medical and jurisprudence law resources!

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Contract Law ResourcesBack to top

Capacity to form a Contract

A valid contract may be made by any person recognised by law as having legal personality, that is natural persons, corporations and the Crown. However, the following classes of persons are in law incompetent to contract, or are only capable of contracting to a limited extent or in a particular manner: 

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Contents of the Contract

The terms of a contract may be express or implied; and separate consideration is given below to one particular type of contractual term, namely exclusion clauses. Where a contractual term has been broken, it will, apart from the possible effect of any exclusion clause, probably give rise to a claim for damages for breach of the relevant contract, or of any collateral contract. Prima facie, the promisor will be strictly liable in the law of contract for failure to perform that which he promised to perform, unless his promise is impossible to perform; and this situation may be contrasted with an action in tort in respect of a broken promise, which will depend on the promisor's state of mind. Furthermore, the breach may in some cases give the promisee the additional right to rescind the relevant contract. Where the contract is one of consumer supply, there are statutory restrictions on the permissible terms.

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Discharge of Contract

Contracts are often silent on the position of the parties in the event that something happens subsequent to the formation of a contract which renders its performance literally impossible, or only possible in a very different way from that originally contemplated. The doctrine of frustration operates to excuse from further performance where...

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Introduction to Contract Law

A contract is 'a promise or set of promises which the law will enforce' (Pollock Principles of Contract (13th Edn) 1).

The expression 'contract' may, however, be used to describe any or all of the following: 

  1. that series of promises or acts themselves constituting the contract;
  2. the document or documents constituting or evidencing that series of promises or acts, or their performance;
  3. the legal relations resulting from that series.

Read the introduction to Contract Law

Privity of Contract

The doctrine of privity of contract is that, as a general rule, at common law a contract cannot confer rights or impose obligations on strangers to it, that is, persons who are not parties to it. The parties to a contract are those persons who reach agreement and, whilst it may be clear in a simple case who those parties are, it may not be so obvious where there are several contracts, or several parties, or both, for example in the case of multilateral contracts; collateral contracts; irrevocable credits; contracts made on the basis of the memorandum and articles of a company; collective agreements; contracts with unincorporated associations; and mortgage surveys and valuations. Despite some earlier doubts, in the mid-nineteenth century the doctrine of privity was accepted by the courts, though those doubts seem to have been resurrected in more recent times, albeit by a minority of cases. The privity of contract rule used to be regarded as intimately connected with the doctrine of consideration and the rule that consideration must move from the promisee.

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Remedies for Breach of Contract

The plaintiff must show that his loss was one which resulted from a breach of contract by the defendant (a direct causal link).

An act of the defendant in a sequence of events leading to a loss might not be held to be the cause of the loss. For example, a shipowner was not liable to a charterer when, as a result of delay, the ship ran into a typhoon, as such a catastrophe may occur anywhere: The Monarch SS Co Case [1949] AC 196.

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Resources, Study Guides & Links

A WOMAN is less likely to lose her home because of her partner's inability to make loan repayments, after a House of Lords ruling yesterday. It gives greater protection to a woman's share of the family home when she stands surety for a partner's debts.

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The Formation of Contracts

A valid contract requires: 

  1. an agreement; 
  2. an intention to create legal relations; and 
  3. consideration (unless the Contract is made by deed).

Whilst each of these three requirements receives separate treatment, they must in reality be looked at together.

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Vitiating Factors

There are situations where the parties have reached agreement but the question arises whether the existence or non-existence of some fact, or the occurrence or non-occurrence of some event, destroys the basis upon which that agreement was reached so that the agreement is discharged or in some other way vitiated. That situation is sometimes described as 'mistake'. However, in utilising that description, the following distinction must be borne in mind: if mistake operates at all in contract, it operates so as to negative or in some cases nullify consent.A mistake negatives consent where, on ordinary offer and acceptance principles, it prevents any agreement coming into in existence.

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Free Contract Law Essays

Please click the link below to see excerpts of the essays, from there you can then go on to read the full contract law essays.

Free Contract Law Essays...

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Criminal Law ResourcesBack to top

Criminal Law Areas

The general basis for imposing liability in criminal law  is that the defendant must be proved to have committed a guilty act whilst having had a guilty state of mind. The physical elements are collectively called the actus reus and the accompanied mental state is called the mens rea.

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Free Criminal Law PDFs

We have a wide range of Criminal Law PDFs for you to download to help you with your Law studies.

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Actus Reus Test

Test your knowledge on the subject of Actus Reus, what is meant by the term and associated crimes.

Take the Actus Reus Test...

Property Offences

A witness, having heard the sound of breaking glass, saw the defendant partially inside a shop front display. The top half of his body was inside the shop window as though he were rummaging inside it. The witness assumed that his feet were on the ground outside, although his view was obscured. The defendant was convicted of burglary. He appealed on the ground that he had not "entered" the building, since his body was not entirely within it.

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Homicide

The defendant was the anaesthetist during an eye operation on a patient. In the course of the operation the tube from the ventilator supplying oxygen to the patient became disconnected. The defendant failed to notice the disconnection for some six minutes before the patient suffered a cardiac arrest, from which he subsequently died. The defendant was charged with manslaughter. At his trial it was conceded on behalf of the defendant that he had been negligent and medical evidence was called by the Crown that the defendant had shown a gross dereliction of care. The judge directed the jury that the test to be applied was whether the defendant had been guilty of gross negligence. The defendant was convicted.

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Statutes & Other Resources

Read our collection of statutes and other law resources.

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Money Laundering

The Money Laundering Regulations (Money Laundering Regulations 2003, SI 2003/3075) were made in order to prevent the use of the financial system for the purposes of money laundering. The Regulations give effect to EEC Council Directive 91/308 on prevention of the use of the financial system for the purpose of money laundering (OJ L166, 28.6.91, p 77), as amended by European Parliament and Council Directive 2001/97/EC (OJ L344, 28.12.2001, p 76). They came into force as follows...

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General Defenses

The general nature of the defence of duress is that the defendant was forced by someone else to break the law under an immediate threat of serious harm befalling himself or someone else, ie he would not have committed the offence but for the threat. Duress is a defence because...

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Inchoate Offences

The defendant members of the 'National Front' had conducted a campaign against a Mr and Mrs W (a white couple) fostering black children. They had written threatening letters, distributed circulars and held public meetings in an attempt to persuade the married couple to stop fostering black children. The RRB sought a declaration that the defendants' acts were unlawful under s12 of the Race Relations Act 1968, which makes it unlawful to discriminate in the public provision of services, and an injunction restraining them from inciting a person to do an act which was unlawful under the 1968 Act.

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Non Fatal Assaults

Logdon v DPP [1976] Crim LR 121.

The defendant, as a joke, pointed a gun at the victim who was terrified until she was told that it was in fact a replica. The court held that the victim had apprehended immediate physical violence, and the defendant had been at least reckless as to whether this would occur.

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Participation

The principal is the one whose act is the most immediate cause of the actus reus, ie the defendant who has actually committed the offence in question. For example, the person who, with mens rea, pulls the trigger of the gun which fires the bullet, which kills the victim, is the principal on a charge of murder.

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General Principles of Criminal Law

The general basis for imposing liability in criminal law is that the defendant must be proved to have committed a guilty act whilst having had a guilty state of mind. The physical elements are collectively called the actus reus and the accompanied mental state is called the mens rea.

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Criminal Law Study Guides

Visit our study guide section for resources to help you with your studies.

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Free Criminal Law Essays

Please click the link below to see excerpts of the essays, from there you can then go on to read the full criminal law essays.

Free Criminal Law Essays...

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English Legal System ResourcesBack to top

Delegated Legislation

Delegated legislation (unlike parliamentary legislation) can be challenged in the courts through the procedure known as judicial review.

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European Union Law

Useful resources covering the topic of European Union Law.

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Parliamentary Legislation

The concept of parliamentary sovereignty means that Parliament is the supreme legal authority in the UK.

In many countries, for example, the USA, the legislature is limited by the Constitution in the laws it can or cannot make.  The U.S. Supreme Court can declare laws passed by the legislature to be unconstitutional and therefore invalid.

The traditional view in the UK is that Parliament is not subject to any legal limitation and that the UK courts have no power to declare laws duly passed by Parliament invalid.

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Statutory Interpretation

It is notable that the general methods of statutory interpretation are not themselves regulated by Parliament, but have been developed by the judges. The Interpretation Act 1978, which from its title might seem to fulfil such a function, has the comparatively unambitious aim of providing certain standard definitions of common provisions, and thereby enables statutes to be drafted more briefly than otherwise would be the case.

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Law Reform

The social reformer Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832), argued for constant radical legislation to achieve the greatest happiness of the greatest number. From this time efforts were made to demystify law and to see it as a set of practical rules. From the Reform Act 1832 onwards, a series of reform measures were passed. The Judicature Acts 1873-75 were followed by a series of Acts codifying substantive branches of law, like the Sale of Goods Act 1839 and the Partnership act 1890. This continued with a series of reform Acts on land, eg, the law of property legislation of 1925. These various measures, however, were ad hoc responses to particular problems. There was no overall plan or consistency of effort and this was to remain the situation until the 1960s.

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More ELS resources

The English Legal System is one of the hardest areas of law, because it covers some of the most complex ideas. Most students, for example, struggle to deal with questions on parliamentary sovereignty when considered in the context of our obligations under EC law. Others find it hard to understand the nature of our constitution and its large number of unwritten 'conventions' that seem subject to change on a whim.

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The Civil Courts

Appeal's against the district judge's decision can only be made if there was a serious irregularity in the proceedings or the district judge made a mistake of law. The application for appeal will be referred to a Circuit Judge who may either dismiss the appeal or order that it be listed for hearing. The appeal itself will be heard by a Circuit Judge

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Tort Law ResourcesBack to top

Breach of Statutory Duty

If a person suffers damage due to the breach of a statutory duty s/he may be able to bring an action for breach of statutory duty simpliciter. The careless performance of a statutory duty will not give rise to a cause of action unless there exists a right of action for breach of statutory duty simpliciter or a common law duty of care in negligence.

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Death

This Act comes into play if either the claimant or the defendant dies before the commencement of proceedings. The Act enables the personal representatives of the deceased victim to recover such damages as he might have received had he lived, subject to certain exceptions.

On the death of the defendant or claimant, all causes of action shall survive against, or for the benefit of, his estate (s1(1)). The exceptions are as follows:

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Defamation

A defamatory statement is one which injures the reputation of another by exposing him to hatred, contempt, or ridicule, or which tends to lower him in the esteem of right-thinking members of society (Sim v Stretch [1936] 2 All ER 1237, 1240, per Lord Atkin).

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Defences and Limitation of Actions

The effects of the limitation periods are procedural rather than substantive in that they bar a remedy and do not extinguish the claim itself. Sir John Donaldson MR stated:

'it is trite law that the English Limitation Acts bar the remedy and not the right, and furthermore, that they do not even have this effect unless and until pleaded'. (Ronex Properties v John Laing Construction [1983] QB 393, 404).

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Employer's Liability

Use this information on this section to help you with your Tort Law studies.

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Free Tort Law Essays

Please browse the essays in this section to see an excerpt, from there you can then go on to read the full law eassays.

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Joint and Several Tortfeasors

Subject to the following provisions of this section, any person liable in respect of any damage suffered by anither may recover contribution from any other person liable in respect of the same damage.

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Liability for Land and Premises

The Act applies not only to land and buildings but also to fixed and moveable structures, including any vessel, vehicle or aircraft (s1(3)(a)).

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Liability for Goods

The purchaser of goods, which turn out to be defective, will sue in contract for breach of the terms implied by the Sale of Goods Act 1979, or the Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982, which cannot be excluded against a consumer (Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977). However, the doctrine of privity of contract usually prevents third parties from suing on contracts to which they are not privy.

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Liability for Statements

There are a number of ways in which a person may be liable for statements.  Consider the following scenarios adapted from Winfield & Jolowicz on Tort:

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Negligence

The law of negligence is a popular subject for law students, but it is also a difficult one - tutors and examiners seem to take pleasure in dreaming up all manner of complex facts to test students' knowledge to the limit. The particularly difficult questions require calculation of general and special damages - a very challenging topic.

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Nuisance

Private nuisance is a continuous, unlawful and indirect interference with the use or enjoyment of land, or of some right over or in connection with it. Lord Lloyd in Hunter v Canary Wharf [1997] 2 All ER 426, stated that private nuisances are of three kinds. They are (1) nuisance by encroachment on a neighbour's land; (2) nuisance by direct physical injury to a neighbour's land; and (3) nuisance by interference with a neighbour's quiet enjoyment of his land

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Remedies

The two principal remedies available to the victim of a tort are damages to compensate for the harm he has suffered and, where appropriate, an injunction to prevent future harm. Damages is the predominant remedy. Certain forms of self-help, such as abatement of a nuisance or self-defence, can be regarded as remedies, but the courts do not encourage this.

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Rylands v Fletcher

In Rylands v Fletcher (1868) LR 3 HL 330, the defendants employed independent contractors to construct a reservoir on their land. The contractors found disused mines when digging but failed to seal them properly. They filled the reservoir with water. As a result, water flooded through the mineshafts into the plaintiff's mines on the adjoining property. The plaintiff secured a verdict at Liverpool Assizes. The Court of Exchequer Chamber held the defendant liable and the House of Lords affirmed their decision.

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Trespass to Land

Trespass to land occurs where a person directly enters upon another's land without permission, or remains upon the land, or places or projects any object upon the land.

This tort is actionable per se without the need to prove damage.

By contrast, nuisance is an indirect interference with another's use and enjoyment of land, and normally requires proof of damage to be actionable.

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The Meaning and Function of Law of Tort

Use this section to help with your Tort Law studies.

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Trespass to the Person

Assualt. An assault is an act which intentionally causes another person to apprehend the infliction of immediate, unlawful, force on his person.

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Interference with Goods

The action for trespass to goods, trespass de bonis asportatis, affords a remedy where there has been a direct interference with goods in the claimant's possession at the time of the trespass, whether that be by taking the goods from him or damaging the goods without removing them.

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Vicarious Liability

Employers are vicariously liable for the torts of their employees that are committed during the course of employment.

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Free Tort Law Essays

Please click the link below to see excerpts of the essays, from there you can then go on to read the full Tort law essays.

Free Tort Law Essays...

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Money Laundering ResourcesBack to top

Free Money Laundering Essays

Please click the essays in this section to see an excerpt, from there you can then go on to read the full money laundering law eassays.

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Journal Articles

The UK government has published Implementing the Third Money Laundering Directive: a Consultation Document, July 2006. It is obliged to introduce domestic law in compliance with the Third Money Laundering Directive 2005/60/EC (the directive)—on the prevention of the use of the financial system for the purpose of money laundering and terrorist financing—by 15 December 2007. The current consultation is on the principles underlying the proposed approach to implementation; the deadline for responses is 20 October 2006. In the preamble, the government is at pains to point out that it does not intend to “gold plate” the implementation, which may come as a surprise to those acquainted with the introduction of the Second Money Laundering Directive 2001/97/EC via the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002, and the Money Laundering Regulations 2003 (SI 2003/3075) (the 2003 regulations). It claims to be devoted to a high-level, risk-based approach, which leaves as much regulatory discretion as possible to individual businesses. Time will tell.

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News Articles

One of the government's newest anti-crime bodies has spent the past year trying to confiscate millions of pounds from a couple in Weybridge, Surrey. Neither is charged with any criminal offence, and neither has yet handed over the money.

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Overview

The Money Laundering Regulations (Money Laundering Regulations 2003, SI 2003/3075) were made in order to prevent the use of the financial system for the purposes of money laundering. The Regulations give effect to EEC Council Directive 91/308 on prevention of the use of the financial system for the purpose of money laundering (OJ L166, 28.6.91, p 77), as amended by European Parliament and Council Directive 2001/97/EC (OJ L344, 28.12.2001, p 76). They came into force as follows:

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Free Money Laundering Law Essays

Please click the link below to see excerpts of the essays, from there you can then go on to read the full Money Laundering law essays.

Free Money Laundering Law Essays...

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Family Law ResourcesBack to top

Children and Family Law

The Children Act 1989 provides for general principles to be applied in court proceedings where children are concerned.

For instance, the welfare of children is paramount with regards to all issues of his welfare and the administration of his property; and that delay in deciding anything that has to do with the child's welfare is likely to prejudice his welfare. Section 1 highlights the importance of children's welfare. Welfare includes the material welfare and non-material considerations such as stability and love.

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Cohabitation, Instead of Marrying

In determining cohabitation, a number of factors are taken into account: the couple living under one roof; the parties having on-going sexual relationship; the financial support of one party to the other; the stability and permanence of the parties; and whether the reasonable person, taking account of the couple's life together, would deem them as an unmarried cohabiting couple.

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Divorce

The decree of divorce is pronounced in open court by either a Circuit Judge or a District Judge. Until that decree is pronounced, the marriage remains a valid one. There is only one ground for divorce as per Section 1(1) of the Matrimonial Causes Act 1973: the marriage must have broken down irretrievably.

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Domestic Violence

There have always been concerns about issues of domestic violence within the matrimonial home. It is trite law that no spouse is entitled to inflict violence on the other party by reason of them being married and such violence will amount to a criminal offence. Where there is domestic violence, the courts may intervene to halt such violence. The court may order two forms of injunctions: a non-molestation order restrains the defendant from interfering with the plaintiff; and an ouster order requires one party to vacate the home and not to return to it.

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Engagement

It is convenient to say a word about engagement, which in some societies is almost as solemn and carries almost as many responsibilities as marriage itself. This is not generally so in England, where an engagement is no more than an agreement between two parties that they will marry at some (often unspecified) future date. Such an agreement was formerly regarded as a contract between the parties, and breaking off an engagement could lead to an action for "breach of promise", but s.1 of the Law Reform (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1970 put an end to such actions by declaring that an agreement to marry is not an enforceable contract.

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Financial Provision After Marital Breakdown

Courts have a wide discretion as to what financial provisions should be ordered upon marital breakdown. Marital breakdown will include nullity, divorce, and separation. Section 25(1) Matrimonial Causes Act 1973 requires the court to take all the circumstances into account, and the first consideration to be given to the welfare of any child of the family who has not attained the age of 18, and to consider in particular the matters listed under Section 25(2).

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Free Family Law Essays

Please click the essays in this section to see an excerpt, from there you can then go on to read the full family law essays.

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Introduction To Family Law

Family law, as the phrase is generally understood, deals with the creation and removal of legal status, its consequences, and the protection (both physical and financial) of family members. It is concerned mainly with the nuclear family - that is, with the relationships between spouses, and between parents (or guardians) and children. Members of the extended family have some rights and come into the picture occasionally, as do local authorities chiefly in their child protection role. The word "family" has various meanings: at its narrowest it may describe the traditional "nuclear family" of a father, a mother and young children, but it has much wider meanings too. It may include other relatives, adopted and fostered children, and (increasingly these days) cohabitants of the same or different sexes.

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Marriage and Nullity

In English law, marriage is an agreement by which a man and a woman enter into a legal relationship by becoming husband and wife and such relationship imposes mutual rights and duties. Marriage also confers a status, that is, of married persons to whom the law assigns legal capacities or incapacities. Lord Penzance defined marriage in Hyde v Hyde (1866) LR 1 P & D 130, 133 as "the voluntary union for life of one man and one woman to the exclusion of others".

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Free Family Law Essays

Please click the link below to see excerpts of the essays, from there you can then go on to read the full family law essays.

Free family Law Essays...

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EC and EU Law ResourcesBack to top

Cases on the Effect of EU Law

The principal question in this case was the question of the direct effects of Article 12, which dealt with customs duty. If the Article was found to be directly effective it would conflict with an earlier Dutch law. Under Dutch law, if Article 12 was found to be directly effective it would, under the Dutch constitution, take precedence over domestic law. The reference to the ECJ did not raise the issue of sovereignty directly. Nevertheless, in addition to declaring that Article 12 was directly effective, the ECJ went on to say that "… the Community constitutes a new legal order in international law, for whose benefit the States have limited their sovereign rights, albeit within limited fields."

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Court of Justice of the European Communities

The function of the European Court of Justice (ECJ), which sits in Luxembourg, is to ensure that in the interpretation and application of the Treaty of Rome the law is observed (Article 220 (ex 164), Treaty of Rome).

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The Effect of European Law

In the situation of conflict between national and EU law, which law is to prevail? The EU Treaty does not contain any guidance on the question of priorities. The matter has been left to be decided by the courts of Member States, assisted by the ECJ.

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Free EU Law Essay - Calls for a constitution for Europe

Calls for a constitution for Europe to address current deficiencies in democracy in EC Law-making ignore the fact that the EC Treaty (as amended) already is a constitution in all but name, yet still lacking in democracy. Critically evaluate the above statement.

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Free EU Law Essays

Please click the link below to see excerpts of the essays, from there you can then go on to read the full EU law essays.

Free European Law Essays...

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Land Law ResourcesBack to top

Co-ownership and The Four Unities

Land may be held by several persons as co-owners as joint tenants (sometimes called 'beneficial joint tenants'), tenants in common or coparceners. There was also a fourth form of co-ownership known as tenancy by entireties, confined to dispositions to husband and wife during coverture, where the wife's interest was not her separate property. Of these interests, tenancy by entireties no longer exists, and tenancy in common and ownership in coparcenary can no longer exist at law but only in equity.

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Free Land Law Essay

Implied trusts/ proprietary estoppel.(A) Can 'S' claim any rights in the house by way of implied trust (B) how the size of any share will be calculated (C) whether 'S' can claim any right to stay or any other remedy on the basis of proprietary estoppel.

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Land - a definition

'Land' includes land of any tenure, and mines and minerals, whether or not held apart from the surface, buildings or parts of buildings (whether the division is horizontal, vertical or made in any other way) and other corporeal hereditaments; also a manor, an advowson, and a rent and other incorporeal hereditaments, and an easement, right, privilege, or benefit in, over, or derived from land: Law of Property Act 1925 s 205(1)(ix).

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Land Law Cases

Use these land law cases to help you with writing law essays, law dissertations and you law coursework.

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Licences

A bare licence is a personal permission or consent, granted without consideration, to enter, traverse over or be present upon the land of another. A bare licence covers a huge number of every day situations where a person may enter on to another person's property - for example, a friend inviting another person over for a drink. A bare licence is a defence to what would otherwise amount to the tort of trespass (Goldsack v Shore (1950) 1 KB 708 at 714 per Evershed MR). Where the licencee oversteps the ambit of the licence, his status will therefore be that of trespasser (Hillen and Pettigrew v ICI (Alkali) Ltd (1936) AC 65 at 69 per Lord Atkin). The famous quote of Scrutton LJ sums this up:...

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Possession

In Powell v McFarlane (1979) 38 P & CR 452, Slade J said:
"Factual possession signifies an appropriate degree of physical control. It must be a single and [exclusive] possession, though there can be a single possession exercised on behalf of several persons jointly. Thus an owner of land and a person intruding on that land without his consent cannot both be in possession of the land at the same time. The question what acts constitute a sufficient degree of exclusive physical control must depend on the circumstances, in particular the nature of the land and the manner in which land of that nature is commonly used or enjoyed. …Everything must depend on the particular circumstances, but broadly, I think what must be shown as constituting factual possession is that the alleged possessor has been dealing with the land in question as an occupying owner might have been expected to deal with it and that no one else has done so".

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Property and Human Rights

The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) identifies a number of rights central to the enjoyment of human life in civil society. It is a requirement that domestic legislation is read in such a way that is compatible with the Convention rights (Human Rights Act (1998) s.3(1)).

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Registration

Since it is possible for the title to a particular estate in land to be registered (for example, the freehold) and a different estate in the same land to be unregistered (for example, the leasehold), it is more correct to refer to unregistered and registered 'titles' as oppose to unregistered and registered land.

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Free Land Law Essays

Please click the link below to see excerpts of the essays, from there you can then go on to read the full land law essays.

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Employment Law ResourcesBack to top

Cases on Employers' Liability

The employer's duty to his employees is personal and non-delegable. He can delegate the performance of the duty to others, whether employees or independent contractors, but not responsibility for its negligent performance:

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Employment Law Case Database

Employment law is rarely covered in any depth on the LL.B. Chances are, you're studying for your LL.M, LPC or BVC. Or perhaps you're taking the Open University Course W221: Employment Law and Practice. Maybe you're struggling with an employment law essay or problem question -that's why you're here, right?

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Employer's Liability Lecture

The employer's duty to his employees is commonly dealt with under four headings, the provision of:

  1. competent staff;
  2. a safe place of work;
  3. proper plant and equipment; and
  4. a safe system of work. These are simply aspects of the broader duty to see that reasonable care for the safety of employees is taken.

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Free Employment Law Essay - The Employment Act 2002

What has been the impact of The Employment Act 2002 (Dispute Resolution) Regulations 2004 on claims presented to Employment Tribunals affecting Tribunals, the higher courts, Respondents, Claimants and the Representatives of Respondents and Claimants.

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Free Employment Law Essays

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Free Employment Law Essays...

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Human Rights Law ResourcesBack to top

Key Cases

The following list contains the most important human rights cases. These are imperative for writing human rights law essays.

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Key Human Rights

In looking to discuss some of what are considered to be the key human rights in this country, it is important to also look to show where they have been applied. Therefore this section will look to present some of the rights within the contexts that they commonly arisen in recent times to allow for a better understanding.

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Human Rights: Interpretation and Application in UK Law

Prior to the enactment of the Human Rights Act 1998, the European Convention was directly relevant to statutory interpretation because it could not be a source of rights and, unless a statute was ambiguous, it could not be used for statutory interpretation, according to R v. Secretary of State for the Home Department ex p. Brind [1991] AC 696 - see also R (Khail) v. Home Secretary [2006] EWHC 2139.

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Reading List / Instant Bibliography

Writing a human right essay? We like to call this section our 'instant bibliography.' This list is straight from our human rights experts, and contains all the books you'll need to read to get started!

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Free Human Rights Law Essays

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Immigration Law ResourcesBack to top

Immigration Law Cases

Each of theses cases will help law students studying immigration law. Use them in your immigration law essays, dissertations and coursework.

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Immigration Law Statutes

The follow statues have been recommended by experts qualified in immigration law.

Use them to help you write law essays, dissertations and law coursework. Each one is relevant to immigration law and corresponds with the information in the explanatory pages.

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The Status of Refugees in Immigration Law

Under the UN Convention on the Status of Refugees of 1951, and the enactment of provisions into the UK, authorities are required to...

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Qualifying for Asylum So As To Be Legally Present in the UK

rticle 1A(2) of the UN Convention 1951 states that someone may qualify “owing to well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or … is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country

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Human Rights Issues Involved with Immigration Law

It is useful to consider the principle of ejusdem generis in ascertaining whether someone falls within a social group that is persecuted by construing a particular social group as being of the same kind as others for reasons associated with the European Convention on Human Rights 1950.

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Immigration Law Reading List / Instant Bibliography

This list recommended reading from one of our experts. Each book has been selected because it will help you write immigration law essays, dissertations and coursework.

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Medical Law ResourcesBack to top

Confidentiality

As most people are all too well aware, patient-doctor confidentiality is well established, but Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights 1950 also supplements this by recognising a patient's right to a private family life.

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Euthanasia and the Withholding or Withdrawal of Treatment

http://www.lawteacher.net/Medical-law/medical-law-confidentiality.php

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Free Medical Law Essays

Please view the essays in this section to see an excerpt, from there you can then go on to read the full medical law eassays.

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Instant Medical Law Bibliography / Reading List

This list is recommended reading from one of the Law Teacher experts. Each book has been selected because it will help you to write medical law essays, dissertations and coursework.

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Medical Law Cases and Statutes

Each case and statutes listed here has been hand selected by one of our experts to help you study medical law. Use them for writing medical law essays, dissertations and coursework.

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Religious beliefs

When the decision to refuse consent is a consequence of the patient’s religious beliefs, Article 9 issues may arise under the European Convention on Human Rights 1950 that protects freedom of thought, conscience and religion, supported by Hoffmann v. Austria (1993) Series A, No. 255.

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Free Medical Law Essays

Please click the link below to see excerpts of the essays, from there you can then go on to read the full medical law essays.

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Jurisprudence Law ResourcesBack to top

Conflicting Views - 'The Classic Divide'

On the basis of the three recognised strands of jurisprudential thought already outlined, it is to be appreciated that there has been an ongoing juxtaposition of views that has led to a great deal of debate in this area that shall be considered in this section under a number of specific sub-headings as a reflection of this debate.

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Instant Bibliography and Recommended Reading.

If you are looking for books on jurisprudence to help you write essays, coursework or dissertations, look no further! Law Teacher asked some of the jurisprudence experts to provide a reading list for your reference!

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The Main Aspects of Jurisprudenc

It is important to appreciate that this theory of jurisprudence is usually most effectively summarised by the maxim that an unjust law is not a true law and is also most closely associated with morality and with the "intentions of God".

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What is Law Within this Context?

Even if we choose to reject Kelsen's awkward account of the targets of law, his basic point remains the same. This is because of the fact that, according to Kelsen, it had come to be understood that what is considered law has nothing to do with its conformity to any normative standard of justice, morality, or utility or efficiency.

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Free Jurisprudence Law Essays

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Misc Law ResourcesBack to top

BPTC/BVC Help Guides

If you are training to be a barrister and just need a little help with your BVC, please read through our comprehensive guides here.

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Advocacy Guides

Advocacy is when a solicitor attends court to represent their client.  In simple form, advocacy is the art of communication. A solicitor will attend court and do the very best for their client to ensure they achieve the best possible result. It involves public speaking, which can be quite intimidating when you first attend court. However, with practice and experience the task does become easier. You will find that the more appearances you make at Court, the easier it will become and the more you will improve and become more confident. Your oral communication skills will develop and so will your ability to put forward structured and coherent arguments

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LPC Letter Drafting

This guide will help you think about the purpose, audience, tone, accuracy and structure of the letter you are drafting. Additionally, this guide covers 'client care.'

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LL.M Help Guides

Do you need help deciding if the LL.M is the right course for you? Perhaps you are already on the LL.M course, and need help with writing your essay or dissertation at Masters level?

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