Fundamental Rights In The Constitution

Nothing is perfect in social science. No 100% objectivity. Constitution of 1973 is maximum adopted by political parties in 1973 till now.

Constitution was the best solution to govern the Islamic state of Pakistan .ppp was major party in west pakistan,National Awami Party (NAP) was in opposition .

The 2nd party in opposition was JUI Jamiat-ul Ulema-i-Islam .The NAP and JUI both parties having their maximum support in Baluchistan and the NWFP.

jui and nap was fighting for autonomy of provinces .The PPP, on the other hand, was not willing to dilute the authority of the central government in-spite of assuring full provincial autonomy for all the provinces of Pakistan. One of the major task was to achieve a balanced way to compromise between Islamic and the socialist concept. As Pakistan was created on the base of Islam, the constitution should reflect the Islamic Laws.

Another major issue was the distribution of powers between the president and Prime Minister. Before this very constitution there exists a Presidential Government in which president had more powers which was contradictory with 1956 constitution. 1962 constitution was rejected by majority. This issue was solved in lopsided manner making the Prime Minister all powerful and a figurehead. If a president wants to pass any order it must be signed by prime minister to make it valid. Under these critical situations constitution was the best plate form to govern the Islamic state of Pakistan This constitution represented a compromise consensus on three issues: the role of Islam; the sharing of power between the federal government and the provinces; and the division of responsibilities between the President and the Prime Minister, with a greatly strengthened position for the latter.

Fundamental Rights

Rights mean those freedoms which are essential for personal good as well as the good of the community. Constitution of The Islamic Republic of Pakistan deals with the fundamental rights of a person. This part is also called the heart of the Constitution, which provides right to life and liberty, equality before law, freedom of speech and expression, liberty of thought belief and worship, cultural & educational right, fair trial and right against discrimination, etc.

(1) There shall be no unfair treatment on the basis of sex alone. All citizens are equal before law and are entitled to equal protection of law. Nothing in this Article shall prevent the State from making any special provision for the protection of women and children.

(2) No person shall be underprivileged of life or liberty saves in accordance with law. It gives complete security. No one will feel lacking the things needed for a comfortable or successful life.

(3) Constitution also emphasizes on the act of providing or supplying something related to property under following rules and regulation; every citizen shall have the right to acquire, hold and dispose of property in any part of Pakistan, subject to the Constitution and any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the public interest.

(4)In respect of access to places of public entertainment or resort not intended for religious purposes only, there shall be no discrimination against any citizen on the ground only of race, religion, caste, sex, residence or place of birth.

(5) No law shall authorize the punishment of a person, for an act or omission that was not punishable by law at the time of the act or omission.

(6) According to constitution no reference or edge will b given to any person related to job point of view, but under some condition government can give some post to deserving person according to these condition as follows No citizen otherwise qualified for appointment in the service of Pakistan shall be discriminated against in respect of any such appointment on the ground only of race, religion, caste, sex, residence or place of birth. Provided that, for a period not exceeding forty years from the commencing day, posts may be reserved for persons belonging to any class or area to secure their adequate representation in the service of Pakistan.

Provided further that, in the interest of the said service, specified posts or services may be reserved for members of either sex if such posts or services entail the performance of duties and functions which cannot be adequately performed by members of the other sex.

(7) Every person has right to preserve its language, culture, script : any section of citizens having a distinct language, script or culture shall have the right to preserve and promote the same and subject to law, establish institutions for that purpose.

(8) Every citizen can raise voice on reasonable issues according to these conditions .Every citizen shall have the right to freedom of speech and expression, and there shall be freedom of the press, subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interest of the glory of Islam or the integrity, security or defense of Pakistan or any part thereof, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality. (9) No restriction on occupation or business if that person follow the lawful and positive thinking; Provided that nothing in this Article shall prevent: - the regulation of any trade or profession by a licensing system; or the carrying on, by the Federal Government or a Provincial Government, or by a corporation controlled by any such Government, of any trade, business, industry or service, to the exclusion, complete or partial, of other persons. Regulation of trade, commerce or industry in the interest of free competition therein; or the carrying on, by the Federal Government or a Provincial Government, or by a corporation controlled by any such Government, of any trade, business, industry or service, to the exclusion, complete or partial, of other persons.

(10) Safeguard against taxation for purpose of any particular religion; No person shall be force to pay any special tax the proceeds of which are to be spent on the propagation or maintenance of any religion other than his own.

(11) Every citizen shall have the right to practice and propagate his religion without disturbing the peace of that state where that citizen is focusing on religion issues. Every citizen can establish or built their institute for the teaching and propagation of their religion.

(12) Slavery is non-existent and forbidden and no law shall permit or facilitate its introduction into Pakistan in any form, all forms of forced labor and traffic in human beings are prohibited .No child below the age of fourteen years shall be engaged in any factory or mine or any other hazardous employment. Nothing in this Article shall be deemed to affect compulsory service: - by any person undergoing punishment for an offence against any law; or required by any law for public purpose provided that no compulsory service shall be of a cruel nature or incompatible with human dignity.

(13) Protection against double punishment and self incrimination. No person shall be prosecuted or punished for the same offence more than once; or shall, when accused of an offence, be compelled to be a witness against himself.

(14) No person who is arrested shall be detained in custody without being informed, as soon as may not be, of the grounds for such arrest, nor shall he be denied the right to consult and be defended by a legal practitioner of his choice. Every person who is arrested and detained in custody shall be produced before a magistrate within a period of twenty-four hours of such arrest, excluding the time necessary for the journey from the place of arrest to the court of the nearest magistrate, and no such person shall be detained in custody beyond the said period without the authority of a magistrate. No law providing for preventive detention shall be made except to deal with persons acting in a manner prejudicial to the integrity, security or defense of Pakistan or any part thereof, or external affairs of Pakistan, or public order, or the maintenance of supplies or services, and no such law shall authorize the detention of a person for a period exceeding three months unless the appropriate Review Board has, after affording him an opportunity of being heard in person, reviewed his case and reported, before the expiration of the said period, that there is, in its opinion, sufficient cause for such detention, and, if the detention is continued after the said period of three months, unless the appropriate Review Board has reviewed his case and reported, before the expiration of each period of three months, that there is, in its opinion, sufficient cause for such detention. When any person is detained in pursuance of an order made under any law providing for preventive detention, the authority making the order shall, within fifteen days from such detention, communicate to such person the grounds on which the order has been made, and shall afford him the earliest opportunity of making a representation against the order:

Provided that the authority making any such order may refuse to disclose facts which such authority considers it to be against the public interest to disclose.

The authority making the order shall furnish to the appropriate Review Board all documents relevant to the case unless a certificate, signed by a Secretary to the Government concerned, to the effect that it is not in the public interest to furnish any documents, is produced. Within a period of twenty-four months commencing on the day of his first detention in pursuance of an order made under a law providing for preventive detention, no person shall be detained in pursuance of any such order for more than a total period of eight months in the case of a person detained for acting in a manner prejudicial to public order and twelve months in any other case: Provided that this clause shall not apply to any person who is employed by, or works for, or acts on instructions received from, the enemy or who is acting or attempting to act in a manner prejudicial to the integrity, security or defense of Pakistan or any part thereof or who commits or attempts to commit any act which amounts to an anti-national activity as defined in a Federal law or is a member of any association which has for its objects, or which indulges in, any such anti-national activity. The appropriate Review Board shall determine the place of detention of the person detained and fix a reasonable subsistence allowance for his family. Nothing in this Article shall apply to any person who for the time being is an enemy alien.

(14)Any law, or any custom or usage having the force of law, in so far as it is inconsistent with the rights conferred by this Chapter, shall, to the extent of such inconsistency, be void.

The State shall not make any law which takes away or abridges the rights so conferred and any law made in contravention of this clause shall, to the extent of such contravention, be void. The provisions of this Article shall not apply to :- (a) any law relating to members of the Armed Forces, or of the police or of such other forces as are charged with the maintenance of public order, for the purpose of ensuring the proper discharge of their duties or the maintenance of discipline among them; or

any of the (I) laws specified in the First Schedule as in force immediately before the commencing day or as amended by any of the laws specified in that Schedule; (ii) Other laws specified in Part I of the First Schedule;

And no such law or any provision thereof shall be void on the ground that such law or provision is inconsistent with, or repugnant to, any provision of this Chapter. Provided that the appropriate Legislature may by resolution extend the said period of two years by a period not exceeding six months.

(15) Every citizen shall have the right to acquire, hold and dispose of property in any part of Pakistan, subject to the Constitution and any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the public interest.

(16) No person attending any educational institution shall be required to receive religious instruction, or take part in any religious ceremony, or attend religious worship, if such instruction, ceremony or worship relates to a religion other than his own. In respect of any religious institution, there shall be no discrimination against any community in the granting of exemption or concession in relation to taxation. Nothing in this Article shall prevent any public authority from making provision for the advancement of any socially or educationally backward class of citizens. Subject to law no religious community or denomination shall be prevented from providing religious instruction for pupils of that community or denomination in any educational institution maintained wholly by that community or denomination; and No citizen shall be denied admission to any educational institution receiving aid from public revenues on the ground only of race, religion, caste or place of birth

Directive principles of state policy:

The Principles set out in this Chapter shall be known as the Principles of Policy, and it is the responsibility of each organ and authority of the State, and of each person performing functions on behalf of an organ or authority of the State, to act in accordance with those Principles in so far as they relate to the functions of the organ or authority. The validity of an action or of a law shall not be called in question on the ground that it is not in accordance with the Principles of Policy, and no action shall lie against the State or any organ or authority of the State or any person on such ground.

(1)As the name of Pakistan suggest that the main Steps shall be taken to enable the Muslims of Pakistan, individually and collectively, to order their lives in accordance with the fundamental principles and basic concepts of Islam and to provide facilities whereby they may be enabled to understand the meaning of life according to the Holy Quran and Sunnah.

The state shall endeavour, as respects the Muslims of Pakistan:

to make the teaching of the Holy Quran and Islamiat compulsory, to encourage and facilitate the learning of Arabic language and to secure correct and exact printing and publishing of the Holy Quran; to promote unity and the observance of the Islamic moral standards; and

To secure the proper organisation of zakat, [ushr,] auqaf and mosques.

(2) The State shall encourage local Government institutions composed of elected representatives of the areas concerned and in such institutions special representation will be given to peasants, workers and women.

(3) The State shall discourage the characteristic of one race parochial, tribal, narrowly confined and provincial prejudices among the citizens.

(4) Equal opportunities, participation and status for women: Steps shall be taken to ensure full participation of women in all spheres of national life.

(5) Complete and best policy on the safety of any family: The State shall protect the marriage, the family, the mother and the child.

(6) The State shall safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of minorities, including their due representation in the Federal and Provincial services.

(7) The State shall:

(a) Promote, with special care, the educational and economic interests of backward classes or areas;

(b) Remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within minimum possible period;

(c) Make technical and professional education generally available and higher education equally accessible to all on the basis of merit;

(d) Ensure inexpensive and expeditious justice;

(e) Make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work, ensuring that children and women are not employed in vocations unsuited to their age or sex, and for maternity benefits for women in employment;

(f) Enable the people of different areas, through education, training, agricultural and industrial development and other methods, to participate fully in all forms of national activities, including employment in the service of Pakistan;

g) Prevent prostitution, gambling and taking of injurious drugs, printing, publication, circulation and display of obscene literature and advertisements;

(h) Prevent the consumption of alcoholic liquor otherwise than for medicinal and, in the case of non-Muslims, religious purposes; and

(I) Decentralize the Government administration so as to facilitate expeditious disposal of its business to meet the convenience and requirements of the public.

(8) Another responsibility is Promotion of local Government institutions. The State shall encourage local Government institutions composed of elected representatives of the areas concerned and in such institutions special representation will be given to peasants, workers and women.

(9) Equal participation of The State shall enable people from all parts of Pakistan to participate in the Armed Forces of Pakistan

(10) Riba means usury and is generally forbidden in Islamic economic jurisprudence fiqh.riba is also prohibited in constitution.

Parliamentary form of government:

A person shall be entitled to vote if:

(a) He is a citizen of Pakistan;

(b) He is not less than eighteen years of age;

(c) His name appears on the electoral roll; and

(d) He is not declared by a competent court to be of unsound mind.

(1) The office of the prime minister is strong as compared to president

(2)President was less than a figurehead.

(3) The prime minister had to b elected immediately after the election speaker and deputy speaker by the national assembly with the votes of the majority of its membership.

(4) The president veto over legislation was completely done away with. He had only seven days to give his assent to a bill passed by the parliament and if he had failed to do so within such a day’s becomes law

(5) The President shall dissolve the National Assembly if so advised by the Prime Minister; and the National Assembly shall, unless sooner dissolved, stand dissolved at the expiration of forty-eight hours after the Prime Minister has so advised.

(6) President also dissolve parliament under such advice

(a) vote of no-confidence having been passed against the Prime Minister, no other member of the National Assembly is likely to command the confidence of the majority of the members of the National Assembly in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution as ascertained in a session of the National Assembly summoned for the purpose; or

(b) A situation has arisen in which the Government of the Federation cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution and an appeal to the electorate is necessary.

The President in case of dissolution of the National Assembly under paragraph (b) of clause (6) shall, within fifteen days of the dissolution, refer the matter to the Supreme Court and the Supreme Court shall decide the reference within thirty days whose decision shall be final.

The president and the cabinet:

There shall be a President of Pakistan who shall be the Head of State and shall represent the unity of the Republic. A person shall not be qualified for election as President unless he is a Muslim of not less than forty-five years of age and is qualified to be elected as member of the National Assembly. (3) The President to be elected after the expiration of the term specified in clause ( 7) shall be elected in accordance with the provisions of the Second Schedule by the members of an electoral college consisting of:

(a) The members of both Houses; and

(b) The members of the Provincial Assemblies.

Election to the office of President shall be held not earlier than sixty days and not later than thirty days before the expiration of the term of the President in office; Provided that, if the election cannot be held within the period aforesaid because the National Assembly is dissolved, it shall be held within thirty days of the general election to the Assembly.

An election to fill a vacancy in the office of President shall be held not later than thirty days from the occurrence of the vacancy: Provided that, if the election cannot be held within the period aforesaid because the National Assembly is dissolved, it shall be held within thirty days of the general election to the Assembly.

The validity of the election of the President shall not be called in question by or before any court or other authority.

Before entering upon office, the President shall make before the Chief Justice of Pakistan oath in the form set out in the Third Schedule. The President shall have power to grant pardon, reprieve and respite, and to remit, suspend or commute any sentence passed by any court, tribunal or other authority.

It shall be the duty of the Prime Minister:

to communicate to the President all decisions of the Cabinet relating to the administration of the affairs of the Federation and proposals for legislation; (b) to furnish such information relating to the administration of the affairs of the Federation and proposals for legislation as the President may call for; and (c) if the President so requires, to submit for the consideration of the Cabinet any matter on which a decision has been taken by the Prime Minister or a Minister but which has not been considered by the Cabinet

In the exercise of his functions, the President shall act in accordance with the advice of the Cabinet or the Prime Minister.

Provided that the President may require the Cabinet or as the case may be, the Prime Minister to reconsider such advice, either generally or otherwise, and the President shall act in accordance with the advice tendered after such reconsideration President shall act in his discretion in respect of any matter in respect of which he is empowered by the Constitution to do so and the validity of anything done by the President in his discretion shall not be called in question on any ground whatsoever.

The federal government:

The executive authority of the Federation shall vest in the President and shall be exercised by him, either directly or through officers subordinate to him, in accordance with the Constitution. There shall be a Cabinet of Ministers, with the Prime Minister at its head, to aid and advise the President in the exercise of his functions. the President shall appoint Federal Ministers and Ministers of State from amongst the members of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) on the advice of the Prime Minister:

Provided that the number of Federal Ministers an d Ministers of State who are members of the Senate shall not at any time exceed one-fourth of the number of Federal Ministers. The President shall appoint Federal Ministers and Ministers of State from amongst the members of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) on the advice of the Prime Minister: Provided that the number of Federal Ministers an d Ministers of State who are members of the Senate shall not at any time exceed one-fourth of the number of Federal Ministers.

The President may, on the advice of the Prime Minister, appoint not more than five Advisers, on such terms and conditions as he may determine.

The President may ask the Prime Minister to continue to hold office until his successor enters upon the office of Prime Minister. Subject to the Constitution, the executive authority of the Federation shall extend to the matters with respect to which Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] has power to make laws, including exercise of rights, authority and jurisdiction in and in relation to areas outside Pakistan: Provided that the said authority shall not, save as expressly provided in the Constitution or in any law made by Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)], extend in any Province to a matter with respect to which the Provincial Assembly has also power to make laws.

On the recommendation of the Federal Government Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] may by law confer functions upon officers or authorities subordinate to the Federal Government.

The President shall appoint a person, being a person qualified to be appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court, to be the Attorney-General for Pakistan.

The Attorney-General shall hold office during the pleasure of the President. It shall be the duty of the Attorney-General to give advice to the Federal Government upon such legal matters, and to perform such other duties of a legal character as may be referred or assigned to him by the Federal Government, and in the performance of his duties he shall have the right of audience in all courts and tribunals in Pakistan. The Attorney-General may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office.

The federal legislature (parliament):

Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) may make laws (including laws having extra- territorial operation) for the whole or any part of Pakistan, and a Provincial Assembly may make laws for the Province or any part thereof.

Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) shall have exclusive power to make laws with respect to any matter in the Federal Legislative List; Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), and a Provincial Assembly also, shall have power to make laws with respect to any matter in the Concurrent Legislative List;

A Provincial Assembly shall, and Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) shall not, have power to make laws with respect to any matter not enumerated in either the Federal Legislative List or the Concurrent Legislative List; and Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) shall have exclusive power to make laws with respect to matters not enumerated in either of the Lists for such areas in the Federation as are not included in any Province.

If any provision of an Act of a Provincial Assembly is repugnant to any provision of an Act of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) which Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) is competent to enact, or to any provision of any existing law with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the Concurrent Legislative List,

then the Act of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), whether passed before or after the Act of the Provincial Assembly, or, as the case may be, the existing law, shall prevail and the Act of the Provincial Assembly shall, to the extent of the repugnancy, be void.

Provincial government and legislature:

The executive authority of the Province shall vest in the Governor and shall be exercised by him, either directly or through officers subordinate to him, in accordance with the Constitution.

There shall be a Cabinet of Ministers, with the Chief Minister at its head, to aid and advise the Governor in the exercise of his functions. The Governor shall appoint from amongst the members of the Provincial Assembly a Chief Minister who, in his opinion, is likely to command the confidence of the majority of the members of the provincial Assembly. The Cabinet shall be collectively responsible to the Provincial Assembly.

The Chief Minister shall hold office during the pleasure of the Governor, but the Governor shall not exercise his powers under this clause unless he is satisfied that the Chief Minister does not command the confidence of the majority of the members of the Provincial Assembly, in which case he shall summon the Provincial Assembly and require the Chief Minister to obtain a vote of confidence from the Assembly. The Chief Minister may, by writing under his hand addressed to the Governor, resign his office. A Minister who for any period of six consecutive months is not a member of the Provincial Assembly shall, at the expiration of that period, cease to be a Minister, and shall not before the dissolution of that Assembly be again appointed a Minister unless he is elected a member of that Assembly.

It shall be the duty of the Chief Minister- to communicate to the Governor all decisions of the Cabinet relating to the administration of the affairs of the Province and proposals for legislation; to furnish such information relating to the administration of the affairs of the Province and proposals for legislation as the Governor may call for; and if the Governor so requires, to submit for consideration of the Cabinet any matter on which a decision has been taken by the Chief Minister or a Minister but which has not been considered by the Cabinet.

the Governor shall appoint Provincial Ministers from amongst members of the Provincial Assembly on the advice of the Chief Minister. A Provincial Minister may, by writing under his hand addressed to the Governor, resign his office or may be removed from office by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister. The Governor may ask the Chief Minister to continue to hold office until his successor enters upon the office of Chief Minister.

On the recommendation of the Provincial Government, the Provincial Assembly may by law confer functions upon officers or authorities subordinate to the Provincial Government. All executive actions of the Provincial Government shall be expressed to be taken in the name of the Governor. The Governor shall by rules specify the manner in which orders and other instruments made and executed in his name shall be authenticated, and the validity of any order or instrument so authenticated shall not be questioned in any court on the ground that it was not made or executed by the Governor. The Governor shall also make rules for the allocation and transaction of the business of the Provincial Government.

Distribution of powers and relations between the centre and the provinces:

Subject to the Constitution, Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] may make laws (including laws having extra-territorial operation) for the whole or any part of Pakistan, and a Provincial Assembly may make laws for the Province or any part thereof. [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] shall have exclusive power to make laws with respect to any matter in the Federal Legislative List;

Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)], and a Provincial Assembly also, shall have power to make laws with respect to any matter in the Concurrent Legislative List;A Provincial Assembly shall, and Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] shall not, have power to make laws with respect to any matter not enumerated in either the Federal Legislative List or the Concurrent Legislative List; and Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] shall have exclusive power to make laws with respect to matters not enumerated in either of the Lists for such areas in the Federation as are not included in any Province. If two or more Provincial Assemblies pass resolutions to the effect that Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] may by law regulate any matter not enumerated in either List in the Fourth Schedule, it shall be lawful for Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] to pass an Act for regulating that matter accordingly, but any act so passed may, as respects any Province to which it applies, be amended or repealed by Act of the Assembly of that Province.

The President may direct the Governor of any Province to discharge as his Agent, either generally or in any particular matter, such functions relating to such areas in the Federation which are not included in any Province as may be specified in the direction. Notwithstanding anything contained in the Constitution, the Government of a Province may, with the consent of the Federal Government, entrust, either conditionally or unconditionally, to the Federal Government, or to its officers, functions in relation to any matter to which the executive authority of the Province extends. The Federation may, if it deems necessary to acquire any land situate in a Province for any purpose connected with a matter with respect to which Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] has power to make laws, require the Province to acquire the land on behalf, and at the expense, of the Federation or, if the land belongs to the Province, to transfer it to the Federation on such terms as may be agreed or, in default of agreement, as may be determined by an arbitrator appointed by the Chief Justice of Pakistan.

The judiciary:

There shall be a Supreme Court of Pakistan, a High Court for each Province and such other courts as may be established by law. No court shall have any jurisdiction save as is or may be conferred on it by the Constitution or by or under any law. The Judiciary shall be separated progressively from the Executive within fourteen years from the commencing day.

The Supreme Court shall consist of a Chief Justice to be known as the Chief Justice of Pakistan and so many other Judges as may be determined by Act of Majlis-e-Shoora(Parliament)] or, until so determined, as may be fixed by the President.

The Chief Justice of Pakistan shall be appointed by the President, and each of the other Judges shall be appointed by the President after consultation with the Chief Justice. A person shall not be appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court unless he is a citizen of Pakistan and- has for a period of, or for periods aggregating, not less than five years been a judge of a High Court (including a High Court which existed in Pakistan at any time before the commencing day); or has for a period of, or for periods aggregating not less than fifteen years been an advocate of a High Court (including a High Court which existed in Pakistan at any time before the commencing day). Before entering upon office, the Chief Justice of Pakistan shall make before the President, and any other Judge of the Supreme Court shall make before the Chief Justice, oath in the form set out in the Third Schedule. A judge of the Supreme Court shall hold office until he attains the age of sixty five years, unless he sooner resigns or is removed from office in accordance with the Constitution."

At any time when- The office of Chief Justice of Pakistan is vacant; or the Chief Justice of Pakistan is absent or is unable to perform the functions of his office due to any other cause, the President shall appoint the most senior of the other Judges of the Supreme Court] to act as Chief Justice of Pakistan. All executive and judicial authorities throughout Pakistan shall act in aid of the Supreme Court. Subject to the Constitution and law, the Supreme Court may make rules regulating the practice and procedure of the Court.

A High Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and so many other Judges as may be determined by law or, until so determined, as may be fixed by the President. The Sind and Baluchistan High Court shall cease to function as a common High Court for the Provinces of Baluchistan and Sind. Subject to the Constitution and law, a High Court may make rules regulating the practice and procedure of the Court or of any court subordinate to it. Each High Court shall supervise and control all courts subordinate to it.