Legal And Ethical Obligations In Recruitment Process
The Brunt hotel is an already successful chain that has shown during the years that its strategic objectives are effective. I, as independent consultant, I will advise the Brunt hotels to use their existing UK- managers during the procedure of the changeover of the new hotels in order to show to the employees the whole ‘’philosophy’’ of the company. I believe that these UK managers must stay in France only in the preparing stage of the opening of the hotel, in order to train managers from France to lead the company. So, I will advise them to hire in the majority host country nationals in order to avoid people characterize the company as company for UK’s that can lead the hotel in France to the failure.
Generally, the company must avoid participating in any kind of legal or ethical issue during the recruitment process. Human rights are the basic rights and freedoms that every person has in the world and each company that respect itself must respect these rights in order to succeed. Recruitment is the process of searching for applicants for a job and after finding qualified people, encourages them to apply for work in the organization. Recruitment is stage of the human resource procedure that is delivering equality in the work place. The hotel must stay away from these types of discriminations that are legally protected like Race or color discrimination , Ethnicity or national origin discrimination, sex or gender discrimination, pregnancy discrimination, religion or creed discrimination, Political affiliation discrimination, language abilities discrimination, disability or medical condition discrimination, age discrimination, sexual orientation discrimination, and gender identity discrimination.
Ethics consist of the right or wrong and of the morality of choices that a person makes and the society accepts. Concerning the business, Ethic is the application of moral standards in the working environment. The most of the times to be ethical is doing what the law requires. The Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 protects people against employment discrimination concerning on all types of discrimination like race and color, religion, national origin or sex etc. The Civil Rights Act of 1991 provides financial damages in cases of intentional employment discrimination.
Race or color discrimination. The term race refers to the categorization of people into populations on the basis of various sets of heritable characteristics. The physical features commonly seen as indicating race are salient visual traits such as skin color. It is unlawful the company to discriminate against person looking for job on grounds of race and color. For example a company in a white skin society will avoid to select a person with different skin color because may cause disputes and damage communications with other employers.
Ethnicity or national origin discrimination. National origin discrimination is a type of discrimination that includes discrimination because a person comes from a particular country or former country, for example, Albania. Sometimes ethnic discrimination includes a group of people with common language, culture and with similar social characteristics. For example Ethnic discrimination can take place when a person from Corfu applies for a job in Crete and managers during the recruitment process preferred the person from Crete even he/she is a lowered skill person. For example race discrimination occurs when a person was not hired for a front office position in a Greek hotel based on her Albanian nationality.
Sex or gender discrimination. It is unlawful to discriminate against workers because of their gender. Sexual discrimination can arise during the recruitment process when for example an employer did not hire somebody instead somebody else based on his or her gender. Moreover the amount of money offered from the employer also based on the gender. For example sex discrimination will occur when during the recruitment process the employers select a man with lower skills instead a woman with higher skills.
Pregnancy discrimination. It is unlawful to discriminate against pregnant women. An employer cannot refuse to hire a pregnant woman because of her pregnancy. An employer cannot refuse to hire someone because she is pregnant or has a pregnancy-related condition. For example if an employer of a hotel has to choose an unskilled woman instead a pregnant woman with skills because of her pregnancy.
Religion or creed discrimination. Creed or religion refers to a shared belief system or faith. If a person during the interview discusses his or her religion with the employer may be a victim of religion discrimination. If for example a person wears turban or a necklace with a cross because of the religion may be a victim of discrimination. If a Muslim person has an interview in a Greek hotel, the employer may doesn’t hire this person because of the turban.
Political affiliation discrimination. Another kind of discrimination during the recruitment process is the political affiliation discrimination. During the interview the employer may say something expecting response finding out the political affiliation of the interviewer that will be out of job in case of political differences. The Employment Rights Act 1996 and the Employment Act 2002 include legislation that protects employees for political, racial, age etc discriminations.
Disability or medical condition discrimination. Disability discrimination occurs when an employer treats a qualified individual with a disability who is an applicant unfavorably because she has a disability. The law requires that the employers must provide reasonable accommodation to a job applicant with a disability. Moreover, this kind of disability occurs when the employee treats an applicant because he/ she has a history of a disability. For example a person with controlled cancer. The people with disabilities are protected by the Disability Discrimination Act 1995. This Act has been extended and includes the Disability Discrimination Act 2005.
Age discrimination refers to the age discrimination. The age discrimination is usually against the youth and against those that are above 40 years old and older. There are a lot of companies that refuse to hire people above a certain age. But all aspects of employment are protected from age discrimination including the recruitment process. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 protects all the employees beyond 40 years old.
2. Appraise the value of the selection interview and the interview techniques.
Selection Interview is a conversation between a candidate and one or more people who evaluate the candidate and decide on whether this person should be offered the position. The interview is a common selection process and has a high predictive power for employment performance. It indicates in many factors that are relevant for the communications job, including cognitive ability, oral and social skills and person-organization fit.
- Job interview techniques: Generally before the interview the candidate must be well prepared. I will divide the interview techniques in two stages. The first is the pre interview preparation and the second the time of the interview.
Before the interview:
-The candidate must first think about him or herself because it is important before the interview to realize the reasons that he is attending it and what he has to offer to the company. Before the interview he must be ready to discuss short and long term career prospects.
- The candidate must be also prepared to explain gaps in employment. For example he must be prepared to give more details that not included in the CV about companies he had worked with.
- He must be prepared to discuss the reasons that he had left from the previous job. if for example it was for a better opportunity or he left involuntarily. In both situations he must explain why honestly but in a positive light.
- The candidate before attending the interview must research the company. He must be informed about the history of the company, the size, the number of employees, years of operating and general information about the goods and services offered. Moreover, he must collect information about the major competitors or other companies in the same field. Finally, he must understand the exactly skills required for the position and have a sense of it and for the department.
- The candidate should realize that the employer use interviews to verify that an applicant has the knowledge, skills and personality that the position requires. The employer also wants to see if the career goals of the applicant are in line with the opportunities available with their company. He is looking for the potential in prospective employee to become team members of his company.
- Moreover, the candidate must try to provide employers with the evidence that he is the right person for this position by displaying his skills and experience in honest and good light. First of all he must realize his skills and his working performance from the previous lobs. Is he a self-starter, able to work without supervision? Is he enthusiastic and easy to work with? Is he able to work under pressure? Can he manage his time effectively? Recruiters always look for an objective analysis of applicant abilities. For example recruiters want to know the steps that the candidate will take to improve his weaknesses.
- The day of the interview he must take into account the time of the interview and be early.
- The clothes that the candidate will wear are always important for the first impression that he will make to the interviewer. The first opinion an interviewer makes is based on how he looks and what is he wearing. It's always important to dress professionally for an interview, even if the organization’s environment is casual. The candidate must dress up in a suit in order to make a good impression and keep the professional tone of the interview.
During the interview:
- The candidate must be prepared with answers to the most common job interview questions. He must always give to the recruiter honest answers with a positive tone and concentrate on his needs. He must emphasize how he can help the company achieve its goals and explain how his skills will benefit the organization. He must be always specific in his answers and ask for clarification in case of misunderstanding. It is clever, the candidate to explain his past successes in order to stand out in the recruiter’s mind. He can describe the experience, the challenges and solutions and the people involved. He must show to the interviewers his ability to communicate effectively by speaking slow and clear. During the interview he must use positive words like I feel, I would etc. The candidate must maintain eye contact with the interviewer and make hand gestures to emphasize important points. He must emphasize his strengths and manage weaknesses so that they appear to be indications of his strengths. At the end, he must close the interview with a statement of his qualifications for this position. Finally, he must thank the interviewer and leave the room.
3. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of interview.
Interviews are a useful process of a company to add a human dimension to such impersonal procedure. It is purpose is the people from the organization to discover how the candidates think and feel about the job that is offered and investigate them in an in depth approach. The advantages of the interviews are:
- They give the opportunity to the employer or the interviewer to meet personally the candidate and asked him more detailed questions.
- They are a useful for the interviewer to obtain detailed information about the personality of the candidate such as perceptions, personal feelings and opinions.
- Likely ambiguities from the CV can be clarified during this process and obtain supplementary information.
- The interview can be useful for determining if the candidate has communicative skills that usually are necessary for each job.
- The interviewer is able to appraise applicant’s verbal fluency and lob knowledge.
- It is a way to choose among equally skilled and qualified applicants.
- It enables the supervisor to understand if there is compatibility between the applicant and the staff.
- It gives the chance to the applicant to ask questions with information useful for making a selection decision.
Disadvantages of interviews are:
- They can be time consuming and costly from both interviewer and candidate. The candidate needs a lot of time for preparation and time to go to the place of the interview. From the side of the interviewer the whole procedure of setting up, interviewing, analyzing the results, feedback and report are costly and they need a plenty of time.
- During the interview is a possibility the interviewer to made subjective evaluation.
- The decisions tend to be made from the first few minutes. The remainder of the interview is to justify the original decision.
- The interviewer gives more weight to the negative information.
4. Assess the different interview types.
The interview is a conversation in which the interviewer asks prepared questions and the candidate must answer them in order to take a job. The types of interview are the following:
- One-to-one or face-to-face Interview. This is a common type of Interview and is one-to-one conversation. In this type of interview the candidate meets directly the interviewer of the job.
- Phone interview. This is a type of interview that is popular among large corporations who are conducting with a huge number of applicants. These interviews are conducted entirely over the phone. Telephone interviews are common interviews for candidates who live far away from the job. for example they leave n Crete and the lob is in Athens.
- Group interview. This is a type of interview that the candidate will be interviewing simultaneously with a number of other candidates all vying for the same job. The same question may be asked to a different person. This type of interviewing is used more in the technology fields.
- Panel Interview.A panel interview involves a number of members of the hiring organization meeting simultaneously with the candidate for the position. This interview style is most common when hiring a senior level corporate executive.
- Behavioral Interviewing or Structured Interviews. This type of interview is the most common for many larger organizations, when is more than one of the same position available within a company. Every candidate is asked the same questions as every other applicant applying for this job.
- Lunch/Dinner Interview. This type of interview is like any other type with the same rules with the only difference that is made during the meal.