Illegal fishing in Major Maritime Security

Since past century sea heve been made for two major activities that is navigation and fishing, but sea can also be a place of crime as well, it depends on the intentions of individuals, crimes the case about the territorial sea, many events it occurs on the surface or underwater, or bottom itselffor instance piracy, hijacking, smuggling, ilegal fishing is a crime that can be done at sea. For Some countries, possibly illegal fishing is just an ordinary crime, but for Indonesia, illegal fishing is a serious threat that influence to indonesia‚Äôs Sovereignty Than terrorism [1] . Because there are Few Things in this reinforces Illegal Fishing That Is a Major Security Problem for Indonesia. How it Happened and how it affects Indonesia, it will of be explained in this essay, and how the problem is being addressed by the Indonesian government.

2. This essay will explain why illegal fishing can be a threat to the Republic of Indonesia and its also as a transnational crime. And also wanted to give an idea how the Indonesian government tried to reduce the number of crimes that occurred, in the case of illegal fishing

ISSUE

3. Background. Indonesia is known as the world's largest archipelagic state with more than 17,500 islands [2] 6.000 populated island, the island of which is 1.000 a permanent island [3] in other words maritime area is larger than land It says the maritime is Very Important for Indonesian. As an archipelagic state, Indonesia has not fully develop its aquaculture as an alternative livelihood and not exploit its natural wealth of the abundant sea, because in New Order era, the former president, Suharto focused on the development of agriculture as the main livelihood of Indonesian. This is what makes the background of why the marine sector were so many illegal fishermen came to Indonesia waters and stealing enormous natural wealth and use it without noticing.

4. Why maritime is so important for Indonesia. Commodities of export of fish products in the mid-year 2010 increased from 26.3 thousand tons or 3.7 percent when compared with the same period in 2009. Many observers say that the welfare of Indonesian people, especially the fishermen can be improved by developing the fisheries sector and use of marine areas as the reinforcement of security in terms of economic sectors that will affect its ability to maintain the integrity of the nation in a vast sea Negara.Dengan 5.8 million square km, Indonesia has the potential to develop marine resources in terms of fisheries lautIndonesia, and while that is an open threat to the nation of Indonesia. Illegal fishing costs the Indonesians to U.S. $ 3 billion a year, but was Also a national security threat [4] , how much of our wealth vanished from our oceans every year? until when silenced vandalism and theft of natural resources of Indonesia that will affect its defense and security Negara.apabila amount of natural resources can be saved it is not impossible for Indonesia to develop other sectors that still need to be improved, such as education and defense.

Because of the marine fisheries sector is supporting the Indonesian economy at the moment is very necessary to build and maintain the integrity of the nation and the State, so that this issue be a major factor and a threat if ignored. If still ignored the natural wealth that should be used will be exhausted and how to maintain the territorial sea if it does not have the budget to buy ships, radar, and infrastructure that support for defense and security of the territory of Indonesia.

As mentioned earlier that illegal fishing is a threat that must be prioritized to be addressed, because in addition to environmental issues crime [5] , illegal fishing also affects other sectors, such as defense and natural resources.

Define illegal fishing.

5. Is it actually illegal fishing? according to Wikipedia illegal fishing takes place Nowhere vessels operate in violation of the laws of a fishery. This cans apply to fisheries are under the jurisdiction That of a coastal state or to high Seas regulated by regional fisheries organizations. That is fishing, unreported fishing has been unreported or misreported to the relevant national or regional authority Organisation, in contravention of applicable laws and Regulations. Generally unregulated fishing refers to fishing by vessels without nationality, or vessels flying the flag of a country not party to the Regional Organisation governing That fishing area or species. The drivers behind illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing are clear Enough, and similar to those behind many other types of international environmental crime. Most obviously, pirate Fishers have a strong economic incentive: many species of fish, particularly those That have been over-exploited and are thus in short supply, are of high value [6] , but for Indonesia according to the terminology contained in the department of fisheries and marine Illegal fishing is a foreign fishing vessel that catches fish Indonesian territory without having the complete document, or, the ship has a document but do not obey the rules, for example breaking fishing ground. Especially on foreign fishing vessels that did not have a letter or document. The practice is mostly done in the illegal pirate fishing is fishing or poaching, which is catching fish by another State without the permission of the State concerned, or in other words illegal fishing by foreign parties. So in other words, illegal fishing is no different with transnational crime, why can be categorized as transnational crime? because these crimes are also crimes that transcend borders of other countries. For example many foreign vessels disguised as fishing vessels to enter the territory of Indonesia, aiming to catch fish but in fact they carried out his smuggling people to Australia [7] , or they are refugees who fled to Australia. Another example is the problem of money laundering, in this case the perpetrators of illegal fishing is a thief illegally caught fish and then they sell it to the market and they earn money from work, so the fish laundering and money laundering is not too different [8] . As for foreign vessels entering Indonesian kewilayah mostly from Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, China, and Hong Kong. In addition, illegal fishing, also can cause a very significant impact for Indonesia, such as:

a. Breaking Sovereignty, many foreign fishermen and Indonesian fishermen who violate the border search of fish. Many misuse of a license to catch fish that can threaten the integrity of the State, such as instances when NAD (Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam), who was still there rebellion by GAM (Free Aceh Movement), they get illegal weapons smuggling by ship from Thailand who pretends to be a fisherman and use of fishing vessels that do not also have permission to go to sea. Another example is a fishing boat used as a means of smuggling drugs, smuggling of electronic goods, and also the smuggling of dangerous chemicals that can be used as bombs.

b. Loss of national resources, because the theft is carried out continuously result in reduction in some marine biota, either protected or not. As an example, whales, sharks, turtles and coral reef damage caused by the use of sea based fish bombs by fishermen and fishing nets that reach the seabed.

6. How do They operate in Indonesian territorial waters? From these data during authors do in the marine patrol, it was found that the potential for the perpetrators of illegal fishing is a sea aru (Arafura), waters north of Sulawesi, the pacific ocean (between Indonesia and the Philippines), Natuna Sea and Banda Sea. Ships that enter the average vessel weighing over 30 GT, as many as 4150's and also ships above 100 GT are foreign owned an average of more than 1,000. Ships legal territorial water that goes into the average boat that weighs 30 GT, while the ship that weighs 100 GT is the border / EEZ waiting for a ship full of small weight, and with such a large ship at full speed into Indonesian territorial water and fish contain from small boats, then returned kepangkalannya in their respective countries (usually done by vessels Thailand and China). Line haul ships in Philippine waters between the North Sulawesi (North Pacific) are too broad, so that surveillance is difficult, they do not like the old sailing ships of Thailand and China. Philippine ship to sea on a daily basis just so hard to catch, so that security forces must be more frequently patrolling the area by boat Thailand sulawesi.Berbeda that point only through the narrow entrance of western Indonesia (Natuna Sea) and they operate in the Arafura Sea, and after feeling quite they returned to Thailand, in their catch, sometimes they also carry a protected marine life and not in accordance with their permit, such as whales, coral reefs, sharks and turtles.

WHAT OTHERS COUNTRIES TO OCCUR

7. Bilateral relationship. Crimes can also disrupt illegal fishing belateral Indonesia relations with other countries, for example China and Indonesia bilateral relations, China and Thailand the number of fishermen who enter illegally forced the Indonesian government through the Navy must wear a hard way to provide a deterrent effect that could reduce the illegal fishing that is to shoot and sink the vessel but before nelayanya secured in advance, so that does not cause casualties. This could lead to violent protests by the States who feel aggrieved. It was also felt by Indonesian fishermen when an Indonesian fishing vessel that had to be shot and sunk by the Australian ship. So that the necessary negotiations between the two countries. (In Bali in June 2006, the 8th Australia-Indonesia Ministerial Forum included illegal fishing on its agenda.) In contrast also with the State of Malaysia, recently in 2010 the relationship between Indonesia-Malaysia was heated by the incident sparked by the arrest of Indonesian fishermen by Malaysian marine police [9] , because the sea boundaries that have not been agreed upon by both countries. And many instances of illegal fishing, which disrupt bilateral relations between Indonesia and other countries such as Indonesia with Philppines, Vietnam, Hong Kong, and Australia. But all that can be completed either diforum bilateral, regional and international levels.

8. Regional relationship, because all countries that intersect are the ASEAN countries will inevitably be a little more disturbing relationship between some countries that comprise ASEAN. So the problem must be solved in the body that is in the container ASEAN Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC) [10] , which consists of seven member countries: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Japan, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philppines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. Who convene and discuss issues that occur between Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines in the Sulawesi sea.

9. International relationship, not just enough to bilateral relations and regional levels to further strengthen Indonesia's position in the international arena on issues of fisheries, Indonesia to join international organizations under the auspices of FAO, in this case Indonesia seeks to strengthen the world that the problem of illegal fishing is a serious problem for Indonesia. In Indonesia's international organization incorporated in the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia and the Pacific (NACA), which has a membership of 17 governments [11] .

STRATEGY IMPLEMENTED TO Prevent ILLEGAL FISHING

10. Preventive strategies. Is how that is done to prevent illegal fishing.

a. Sea patrol vessels by the Navy, That is how that is done to prevent and narrow the space for the perpetrators of illegal fishing, especially those coming from outside which is the weakest points of Indonesia. The surgery can be concentrated on aru marine waters (Arafura), waters north of Sulawesi, the pacific ocean (between Indonesia and the Philippines), Natuna Sea and Banda Sea, patrols carried out for 24 hours non-stop. The ships are currently not sufficient to keep the waters so wide, even more players thief fish in Indonesian territorial waters territory is located in a fairly shallow waters. So that the ships are small and quick about the right to use in preventing the theft of the fish. For example, illegal fishing vessels that operate already using the new engine technology and fast, so that the old ships owned by the Navy was not enough to catch up. Therefore, the Navy fleet will be increased in its amount, because the Navy needs at least a budget of Rp 40 billion to build a PC (Patrol Craft) type 40 for maintaining the sovereignty of the State of illegal activities that threaten the sea, for example to prevent the theft of a sea fish increasingly widespread, at least need 120 Navy patrol boat [12] . At this time As a temporary solution, marine patrols were conducted jointly between the Navy, police and department of fisheries and marine (DKP).

b. Increasing awareness by using advanced technology such as coastal radar that can be installed in the vicinity of track illegal vessels, radar can be synergized with the Air Force's radar survailence and the Navy. because without the sensing device, the competent institutions will lack essential information about the location of the occurrence of illegal fishing and modus operandi that continues to grow.

c. Installation of VMS (Vessel Monitoring System) [13] on fishing vessels that already have licenses either local or foreign ships. This meant that the movement of ships to be monitored according to the catch. For foreign vessels are required to purchase their own VMs, but for Indonesia made free ship pairs only pay for airtime only. unfortunately not all vessels have VMS, from over four thousand vessels that have permits, there are only 1.500 vessels using VMS. Only limited to foreign ships and ships that have GT (Gross Tonage) above 60-100. But this is a must for foreign vessels and local boats that already have licenses. For the initial stage, the Office of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (DKP), perform the installation based on the priority scale, namely mounted ship bertonase only ship over 60 GT, and foreign fishing vessels operating in Indonesian territory.

d. Giving quotas (p. 302 environmental and natural resource economics, seventh edition). Aiming to avoid over-exploitation, because quotas are given emphasis on the number of catches and catch the ship operating. This is already done but in reality, a permit that has been in the can by the foreign fishermen misused, like the example they duplicate permit by illegally to increase the fleet to enter kewilayah Indonesian waters. But it was already anticipated by the issuing of ministerial regulations [14] . This has been implemented by the State of Canada.

e. Regulation. It also is a way to restrict them is to fix the rules, for example renewal OF REGULATION OF THE Minister and Fisheries MARINE AFFAIRS OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA NUMBER PER.05/MEN/2008 about Regarding CAPTURE BUSINESS Fishery, which was originally in 2006, is no longer applied precisely related to the increasingly advanced technology and do not forget to boost supervision of these regulations in the field.

f. Human resources, human resources must also be enhanced in order to carry out their duties properly, professionals in their fields, to avoid a breach or things that deviate from these laws, such as bribery, corruption and provide security that is illegal to ship such illegal. Improved human resources through seminars, whether domestic, regional and international scale, upgrading law, relating the harmonious coordination with law officials or officers who deal with illegal fishing.

11. Repressive strategies. Is the strategic actions taken to enforce the law and crack down on violators of the law.

a. The firing and sinking fishing boats. Actions taken to make foreign fishing vessels to be deterrent in other words to provide a deterrence effect on foreign vessels who have done things over and over again, it passed the law [15] . As an example of this action was carried out to fishermen and fishing Thailand China continued to enter the territorial sovereignty of Indonesia without a permit [16] . Actually, this action only to create a deterrence effect for other fishermen, for the other vessel did not do the same.

b. Court punishment. After the ship was arrested, the ship handed over to the court to immediately check that qualify according to law for the acts of the applicable law in Indonesia ataukan not. After receiving information from investigators, that is the Navy officer or police officer, then the problem files reviewed to determine the size of fines to be paid, or how many years imprisonment to be implemented by the fish thief. Fines must be given a large amount, for actors wary and not repeat it again, and his jail sentence also must be long enough to generate deterrence effect.

SUMMARY

As an archipelagic country meaning the ocean is very important to the nation of Indonesia. In addition to the sea as an integral tool can be used whereabouts, Indonesia seeks to promote the maritime life as aquaculture culture that has become characteristic of Indonesia since the first.

Illegal fishing is a very serious crime to be dealt with by the Indonesian people, it is considered more important than the issue of terrorism is growing today. Just because this time Indonesia was serious about building his perkonomian nation toward prosperity of the people who expected the creation of more stability to the Indonesian nation, so that the maritime sector in this regard llegal fishing became the main beam in supporting the economy. In addition, illegal fishing also result directly and indirectly on the State sovereignty and the loss of natural resources in the ocean.

Illegal fishing is mostly done by neighboring countries such as Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, China, and Hong Kong, who enter illegally through the territorial waters of the sea aru (Arafura), waters north of Sulawesi, the pacific ocean (between Indonesia and the Philippines), Natuna Sea and Banda Sea.

Illegal fishing can disrupt bilateral relations between two countries, regional and international levels. Therefore, as a very important problem that could threaten the security of Indonesia, should be overcome by continuous sea patrols by the Navy and Police assisted by DKP, survailance radar installation, the installation of VMS, granting quotas to foreign fishing vessels, regulatory reform and pemgembangan human resources.

Conclusion

As more major problems of terrorism, it can be said that illegal fishing is A MAJOR PROBLEM FOR INDONESIA MARITIME SECURITY, And at the same time as a form of crime that can result in a sovereign country so need to solve those problems seriously. To create resilience and security to support the sovereignty of the State.