Trade Marks Act 1994
Introduction of the Act
The Trade Mark Act (TMA) 1938 was said to have caused a 'great deal of judicial frustration', thus indicating a strong need for trade mark law reform. The provisions under the TMA 1938 were unclear resulting in a lack of clarity being provided to the judiciary when applying the law to individual cases. It was felt that modern commercial activities were not being catered for, such as character merchandising,and so it became apparent that change was needed. In 1988 the first harmonisation Trade Mark Directive 89/104/EEC (now replaced by 2008/95/EC) was introduced to harmonise trade mark law throughout the EU. In light of this, a number of proposals were set out in the White Paper 's 'Reform of Trade Mark Law' leading to the enactment of the Trade Mark Act (TMA) 1994. The Act was intended to implement the Directive by setting out the procedural and operational requirements which apply to trade mark's and trade mark applications.
Aim of the Act
The aim of the TMA was to ensure that trade mark owners were given the protection they deserved by reforming the unsatisfactory provisions contained within the TMA 1938. The previous law was considered rather outmoded as it was unable to protect modern trademarks and the protection that was afforded to owners was extremely limited. It was thought that the TMA 1994 would 'bring about a general modernisation of the law of trade marks in the UK' so that trade mark owners were protected against the use of their marks by third parties who would benefit from their good reputation.
Main changes to the law
The TMA 1994 was considered to be the ‘first major overhaul of trade mark law since 1938’ on the basis that it significantly extended the protection available to trade mark owners. Section 1 of the Act made it possible for the registration of any mark that was 'capable of graphical representation' which meant that any mark or logo, such as slogans, designs, letters, shapes and straplines, would be capable of being registered. This section provided protection to trade mark owners that may otherwise have been unavailable to them under the previous law and widened the scope of the TMA 1938. The TMA, therefore, intended to change this by extending the definition of trade marks. Although it has always been the case that a trade mark action could be brought under the common law of passing off the TMA 1994 gives owners extended protection against the misuse of their marks by third parties which will inevitably limit the amount of passing off actions that are brought. The TMA 1994 also redresses the problems that were caused by the requirements under s.3 of the TMA 1938 for registration to be for particular goods falling within one of the 42 international standards of goods. If a trader wanted to register goods falling within several of the classes, separate applications would need to be filed for each class as signified in American Greeting's Corp's Application. Under the TMA 1994, however, a single application can now be made making it easier for trade mark owners to register their marks for different classes of goods.
Patents Act 1977
Why the Act was introduced
The Patent Act (PA) 1977 was introduced following recommendations from the Banks Committee in its report on the patent system and patent law in the UK. It was thought that by introducing the Act, UK patent law would be harmonised with the 'European Patent Convention (EPC), the Community Patent Convention (CPC) and the Patent Co-Operation Treaty (PCT).' The implementation of the Act brought the UK into line with other European trading partners and ensured that the UK was adhering to its international obligations to ensure a more harmonised patent system was in place.
Aim of the Act
The aim of the Act was to establish 'a new law of patents that would be applicable to existing and future patents and to give effect to certain international conventions on patents; and for connected purposes.' The rights of patent owners were given extended protections so that they could make and sell their inventions regardless as to whether a third party developed the same invention. The Act also sought to rectify the problems that surrounded the rights of employers and employees in relation to the employee patentable inventions since it was said that such inventions had ‘been a matter of controversy over a long period.’
Main changes to the law
The enactment of the PA 1977 brought asignificant change to UK patent law as its provisions were said to have ‘framed the same effects in the UK as the corresponding provisions of the EPC, the CPC and the PCT’ as illustrated by section 130 (7) of the Act. Thus, it is provided for under section 1(1) of the Act that for an invention to be patentable it must be new, have an inventive step, be capable of industrial application and not be excluded by subsections (2) and (3). This is largely similar to Article 52(1) EPC which states that 'European patents shall be granted for any new inventions which are susceptible of industrial application, which are new and which involve an inventive step.' In view of this, it is clear that the PA 1977 was largely influenced by the provisions of the EPC which was deliberately conducted so that British patent law could be brought into line with patent law within the EU. One of the most significant changes that was made by the Act, nonetheless, was the codification of the patentability of employee inventions under section 39. Thus, it was made clear that employee inventions created during the course of employment would belong to the employer. The Act also introduced worldwide novelty for the first time (section 2(1)) by requiring comparisons of previous technical knowledge to be made anywhere in the world. This clearly extended the protection of patent owners which was necessary given the modern changes in society and advances in international trade.
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American Greeting's Corp's Application RPC 329
Patent Act 1977
Trade Mark Directive 89/104/EEC
Trade Mark Act 1938
Trade Mark Act 1994