Everyone have a right in a freedom. If person did not break the law, they cannot be punished. Individuals cannot be charged without proper and independent court. People cannot be put in a jail without any charges and court. Every people have a right in a lawyer, they can ask for them and no one cannot say ‘NO’. Does not matter where people from and they cannot be discriminated. People have to be respected and get fair trail without any discrimination.
The right to marry. Every single person has a right to marry. No one cannot to be punished for this. Individuals have a right to married if they want to and forced marriages are not acceptable in our society. Everyone has a right in a happy life and has a freedom to marry who they want to marry.
2.1 Explain with examples, why society needs rules.
Rules are necessary to keep society in order. If there is no rule that everyone has a right to live, so people will go and kill everybody in a streets and no one will be charged so it will be like a chaos in the world. Everyone will do wherever they want to do. In there is rule that kids must attend school who is under 18’s then in society majority kids will be uneducated and they do not have a future. People will loose their jobs and no one can change them because it will not be enough educated people.
2.2 For a given, specific situation explain:
a) Why laws are needed
b) How laws are made
c) How laws are enforced
a) Laws are necessary to protect individuals in society, otherwise the world be Anarchy. Everyone needs to understand and respect the law in order to be a law – biding citizen of the country they reside in.
The majority of the population is law – abiding.
b) In the UK are several types of law.
Statute law. Laws made in Parliament, known as legislation. When a law is passed it is called an Act.
Laws are made a legislative Assembly known as Statute.
Every country has rules which help to control society, otherwise there would be anarchy. Law are made to protect your families’ rights. They ensure that as individuals we behave using acceptable behaviour.
Anti – social behaviour is a method of controlling with consequences.
c) Case law. Courts determine how law should operate. When case comes to court the Judge looks to see if a similar case has been heard, the case will be based on this interpretation. The judge needs to decide what the law is when a case before him.
3.1 Describe the electoral process involved in the following:
school council elections
School council elections. To stand for election, candidates must attend school in that area in which they want to be elected. They try to persuade people to vote for them. They also campaign in their local council. School council elections take every year. Each student can go to vote for a candidate whom they think is right for a councillor place. The Ballot papers are placed in the Ballot box and are counted.
In a local election, you vote for the councillors who run your local services. Councillors are elected for a term of four years, though in some areas the are not elected at the same time, so elections may take place more often.
You can vote in local government elections if you have registered to vote and you are:
A British citizen living in the UK.
A Commonwealth citizen living in the UK.
A citizen of the Irish Republic living in the UK.
A European Union citizen living in the UK.
Registered to vote as a Crown Servant.
Registered to vote as a service voter.
You cannot vote in local government elections if you are a British citizen living abroad and registered as an overseas voter.
The way you vote for local councillor is similar to voting for Member of Parliament (MP) in general election. In England and Wales, the candidate who gets the votes wins this is called a first – past – the – post voting system.
When you vote in a local election, the ballot paper will list all the candidates standing to be councillor in your area. You may be asked to vote for more than one candidate, depending on where you live.
Local elections take place at least every four years. There are several types of election, because local authorities are organised in different ways, depending on where you live. All the councillors are elected every four years. Half of the councillors are elected every two years. A third of the councillors are elected every year for three years, with no elections in the fourth year.
To stand for election, candidates must either live in the electoral area and be registered to vote there, or have some other close connection with the area, like working there. Councillors are paid a basic allowance, but may also be entitled to additional allowance and expenses for attending meeting or for taking on special responsibilities.
National elections. A person standing as a candidate for an election is called an MP (Member of Parliament). Often they would knock at your door and try to persuade (you) local people vote for them. This is also known as canvassing. And they also campaign and try persuade you to vote for them during prime time using – the media. This may take up to10 minutes to broadcast. The electoral process usually takes place every 4 years and once each household receive its Ballot Papers in the post. Each household is required by law to check the details printed on the application form, sign it and return to the local Town Hall as soon as possible.
The details of each member registered to an address is then added to the Electoral Register. This is a Central Database which contains personal information of each of us.
Usually 2 weeks prior to the date, venue and time of casting your individual vote, usually between 7 a.m. – 10 p.m.
On the day in question you give your card to reception, who in return they give you a ballot paper, when by you put an ‘X’, to indicate your candidate choice.
Your ballot paper is placed in the ballot box and this is usually counted after 10 p.m. on the day of casting your vote.
3.2 Describe the main role and responsibilities of each of the following:
a) a school council representative
b) a local councillor
c) an MP
School council representative role is to participate in the whole school attending regular meeting and helping to review different aspects of the school. Suitable candidates can be reliable, responsible and interested in finding out peoples views about different aspects of the school. Also candidates should be good at debate, when make a decision should be fair and find a solution. Candidate should know how to represent fair views of others. Candidate sometimes have to work out of hours time so should be willing to give up some time of own time. From candidate expecting to be able to stick t a code of conduct – respect confidentiality job description. Council representative should know how to work as a team also how to communicate with other colleagues and people with which will work. School council representative have to find out and represent the views of others and make a decision or solve the problem. Representative must know how to raise awareness of important issues. Find out and provide feedback to other students and staff through assemblies and meetings. Take a big part in decision making. Also be able to attend meetings which last at least one a fortnight.
The position of councillor is vital in the local community because they are a voice of the community. Councillors are champions of the users of local services. Local people know what is best for local communities and they are critical to the effective functioning of democracy. They play a very important role in helping to shape future services for the benefit of the local people. In order to make sure this happiness they work very closely and in partnership with the police, health and other public bodies and private sector. They oversee one of Canterbury biggest business which employs 850 staff and spend £95 million per annum and they play a vital role in the effectiveness of local government in developing a better quality of life for Canterbury.
Many councillors se their first and foremost role as representing their ward and the people who live there. Council representative hold drop in sessions, deal with constituent enquires about an aspect of council business. Undertaken case work such as representing an individual or family at special appeals, perhaps related to housing benefit.
Also they explain council policy and make sure that the policy has been carried out fairly. Councillor support local partnership and organisation. Campaign on local issues, championing the causes which further the interests, quality of life and development of the community.
They also need to ensure local people are informed about services in the area, decisions that affect them and the reason why decision are taken by council.
Community leadership is central o the Governments thinking about modern local government. It involves partnership with other organisations. Canterbury City Council works in partnership with many local bodies and councillors serve on these local forums on behalf of the council. Councillors representing the council and constituents on local management boards, school governor, committees or local partnership panels. Participating in the activities of any outside body to which they are appointed and reporting back to the council and developing a working knowledge of the organisations, services, activities and other factors to the community well being and identity.
All councillors are involved in decision making. Councillors, as Members of Council and Scrutiny Committees meet with Councillors business in formal setting. Most meetings are open to the press and public. There are written rules that govern behaviour and procedures at these meetings called Procedure Rules and these enable Councillors to take part effectively.
Councillors can influence local policies through their role on full Council, for some, as a member of the Executive, their role on committees which both scrutinise the work of the Executive and recommend policy developments. Their role as employers of staff, on appointment panels, disciplinary and grievance appeals. As member of management boards of voluntary bodies and school governors as a member of partnership boards. Membership of a Political Group these Political Group meet separately from Council meetings and undertaking casework.
The role of the MP. The MP’s have three main responsibilities.
Constituents, Parliament and their Political Party. In Parliament they participate in debates, as well as voting on legislation. Some have roles as Ministers in government, or a spokesperson in opposition.
MP’s can help their constituents by advising o problems especially work related problems, they also act as figure heads in the local community.
MP’s usually support their party by voting with its leadership in the House of Commons as well as acting as representatives for the party in he Constituency. You can contact your MP by:
Writing; House of Commons, London, SW 1A 0AA
4.1 Explain, citing examples, the relationship between personal choice and community responsibility.
Marriage is personal choice, often when as an individual you make a choice of who you want to live with and make future plans. You are however unable to get married if you are under 16. Choices often based on feelings, attractions and money.
Arrange marriages are often decided by the wider family network, which is the responsibility of the wider community. Education and wealth are often important factors, friendship between two families. Children are often promised to certain families for future marriage. An arranged marriage is often agreed by more than one person over a long period of time.
4.2 Describe the main function of two organisations that protect the rights of:
b) Members of a community.
Sale of Goods Act, 1979.
This Act ensures that goods purchased are of satisfactory quality. You are entitled to claim refund provided you show a valid receipt as often exchanges cannot take place often a specific period.
These rules cover all goods that we purchase, whether from a trader or at the door, and by mail order.
Member of a community
Scams, internet fraud (OFT) they publish information on recent postal and door step scams.
Rip – off scams watchdogs highlights bogus traders (builders, plumbers etc.) who can people out of £1000, before completing jobs on homes. They are also known as Cowboys builders.
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