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The European commission is supranational politically institution
The treaty of nice limited commission to one member per member state. And now there are 27 commissioners .Every five years commission is appointed, within six months of election to the EU Parliament. The president of European commission is Jose Manuel Barroso. Commission is based in Brussels, Belgium, and have offices in Luxemburg.
There are some procedure they must follow:
The council meeting in the composition of heads of state of government nominates the person it depends to appoint as the new Commission president. Then parliament accepts the nominee by voting of approval. The commission president in discussion with member state governments chooses the other member of the Commission. The parliament interviews all members and gives opinion on entire college. After approval of nominee of president and other members by parliament, The Council appoints them, acting by a qualified majority.
Main roles of Commission are: Proposing new legislation, Implementing EU policies and the budget, Enforcing European law, representing the EU on the international stage.
Commission is one and only responsible for drawing up proposal for new European legislations, which represent to Parliament and the Council. These proposals have goals to defend interest of Union and citizens. The Commission will propose action at EU level only if it considers that a problem can’t be solved by national, regional or local action. The principle of dealing with thing at the lowest level is called Subsidiarity principle.
The Commission is responsible for managing and implementing the EU budget and policies adopted by Parliament and Council. Commission is responsible for supervising the work. The Commission handles the budget but they are watched by Court of auditors. Their goal is to ensure good financial management.
Commission with Court of justice is responsible for making sure EU law is properly applied in all member states. If they found that an EU country in not applying an EU law the launches infringement procedure, if this procedure fails, the Commission must then refer the matter to the Court of Justice. Then Court of Justice are binding on member and EU institutions.
The EU Commission is important for EU on the international stage. It enables the 27 member state to speak with one voice international forums such as the World Trade Organization. The Commission also has responsibility of negotiating international agreements on behalf of the EU.
Parliament is supranational institutions which match people of states together in European community. In Parliament are involved about 785 representatives from 27 countries. Since 1979 parliament is elected by citizens that they represent. Parliament is choosing every five year. Now parliament is consisted of 785 members. Parliament is presided by President; today president of parliament is Hans-Gert Poettering. Parliament is working in France, Belgium and Luxemburg. Monthly plenary sessions are held in Strasburg, France is parliament seat, Parliament committee is held in Brussels. Administrative offices are in Luxemburg. Three main roles of parliament are: they share power to legislate with Council, they are doing democratic supervision over all EU institutions, and they share authority over EU Budget with Council. Parliament must be consulted and they can approve proposal for some certain decisions. Parliament must to approve President of EU commission, and commission is politically answerable to Parliament. Parliament is monitoring work of Council.
EU council is Intergovernmental main decision making body. Council represent member states, their meeting are consist of one minister from each EU’s national governments. Depends of what is about meeting are depending which minister attend meeting. Each minister is empowered to commit their government. Twice at year there are meeting for heads of state or government with president of commission. Council has function to establish policy guidelines for EU integration. Council is intergovernmental organizations which has goal to protect human right, to combat social problems. The presidency of council are rotating every six months, they assisted by general secretariat, which prepare council work at all levels. Today on the place of secretary general is Javier Solana. Meetings are held in Brussels, but in three months they are held in Luxemburg. Responsibilities of council are: to pass EU laws, to coordinate the broad economic policies of EU members, to conclude international agreement between international organizations, to approve EU budget, To develop of the EU’s common foreign and security policy, to coordinate cooperation’s between national courts and police forces in criminal matters. There is permanent team of country ambassadors in Brussels that defend national interests. They have weekly meetings with COROPER (permanent representatives committee). COROPER is assisted by working groups which job is to prepare work for council, except agricultural issues. Decisions in council are taken by vote. The number of votes depends of country population. Bigger population more votes. The most common voting procedure on Council is qualified majority voting. To one proposal be adopted it needs support of specified minimum number of votes. Decision of council must be unanimous, each member state has power to veto in these areas, but the Nice is changed the rule and allow council to take decisions by majority voting. A qualified majority is reached if: if majority members approve, if there are specified minimum number of votes, and if there are votes at least 62% of the total population of EU.
The rules and procedures for EU decision-making process are laid down in the treaties. There are three main procedures: Consultation, assent and co decision.
Under the consultation procedure, the Commission sends its proposal to both the council and parliament, but the Council is that who officially consults Parliament ad others bodies. In all cases parliament can approve the commission proposal, reject it, or ask for amendments. The areas which are covered by the consultation procedure are: police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters, revision of the treaties, EU citizenship, Agriculture, transport, economic policy, etc…
The assent procedure means that the council has to obtain the EU parliaments assent before certain very important decisions are taken. There parliament can’t amend a proposal, it must either accept or reject.
The areas covered by Assent procedure are: Specific task of the European central bank, the structural funds and cohesion funds, certain international agreements, etc..
In the co decision procedure parliament and council share legislative power. Commission sends proposal to both institution, they both read and discuss it twice in succession. If they can’t agree it is put before a conciliation committee. Once the committee has reached an agreement they can finally adopt the law. The areas covered by co decision procedure are: international market, employment, education, non-discrimination on the basin of nationality, etc…
Most accounts of European intergradations starts when Second World War is finished. After there are some destructions of world war many of people are hoped of changing political cooperation’s in Europe. Ideas of European unity were articulated long before the arrival of twentieth century. During the war, resistance movement had strongly idea to Unite Europe. The movement of Europe faltered after war, after the electoral defeat in the UK of Churchill. Faced with cold war and economic problems the USA in 1947 was signed in an effort to liberalize world trade which was Marshall Plan, which aim was to provide financial aid for Europe. In 1948 USA required an organizations to administer programme, which became organization for EU economic cooperation, and in 1960 Organization for Economic cooperation and development. In 1948 there are Brussels treaty between France, UK and three Benelux countries. Then in 1949 the North treaty organizations also called as NATO and the Western EU Union signed in 1945. After the congress of Europe was convened at The Hague in 1948. In 1949 was signed the statute on the Council of EU, providing for a committee of ministers and a parliament minister and parliament assembly. In 1950 there is signed The EU convention on Human rights which came into force in 1953.
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