Tag: EU Law

Articles

Duties and Obligations of a Liquidator - Malta
11th Jun 2021
Introduction: Explain and discuss the duties and obligations of a liquidator of a limited liability company which has been wound up upon an order by the Court. The relevant provisions relating to the local law concerning insolvency are found mainly in the Companies Act (chapter 386 of the Laws of Malta) and the Commercial Code....

EU Judgments on the Real Seat Approach to the Domicile of Companies
10th Jun 2021
Introduction: How Far Have The Judgments Of The European Court Of Justice In The Cases Of C-212/97 Centros, C-208/00 Uberseering And C-167/01 Inspire Art And Later Cases Undermined The Power Of Member States To Apply The “Real Seat” Approach To The Domicile Of Companies?...

Human Rights Convention
18th Mar 2021
Introduction: Human Rights Convention. The Human Rights Act 1998, came into force in full on 2nd October 2000; guaranteeing the Convention rights of the individual against interference by the state and enabling people in the UK to enforce these rights and liberties in UK courts....

European Court of Human Rights Act
18th Mar 2021
Introduction: HUMAN RIGHT ACT 1988 The Human Rights Act 1998 is a United Kingdom Act of Parliament which received Royal Assent on November 9, 1998, and ......

Human Rights Act 1998 and the Law Relating to Land
18th Mar 2021
Introduction: The Human Rights Act 1998 (which incorporate the European Convention on Human Rights into our law (the Convention)) is having a significant impact on domestic law, and when it was implemented in October 2000, there was a lot of speculation about its effect......

Unintended Uses of the Human Rights Act
18th Mar 2021
Introduction: After the incorporation of European Convention of Human Rights via the Human Rights Act 1998, there have been considerable critical commentaries ......

Common Law Reasoning and Human Rights Act
18th Mar 2021
Introduction: The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) was envisaged to prevent the repetition of the immense Human Rights violation as experienced in ......

Internet Copyright Protection
26th Feb 2021
Introduction: Internet Copyright Protection. Firstly, copyright is a property right that subsists in certain specified types of works provided for by the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (CDPA); the owner of the copyright subsisting in a work has the exclusive right to do certain acts in relation to the work, such as making a copy, broadcasting or selling copies to the public...

The Supremacy of European Community Law
17th Feb 2021
Introduction: Critique the impact of the principle of the supremacy of European Community law on the principle of parliamentary sovereignty in the constitution of the United Kingdom....

European Convention of Human Rights
17th Feb 2021
Introduction: To what extent has the Human Rights Act 1998 and the European Convention of Human Rights 1950 affected the liability of public authorities in the Law of Negligence and the remedies available...

Public Authorities in Law of Negligence
17th Feb 2021
Introduction: Historically, the European Convention of Human Rights 1950 has brought Human Rights Act 1998 in United Kingdom whereby there is no need to travel ......

Impact of the Human Rights Act
9th Feb 2021
Introduction: In seeking to be able to critically examine the above quotation in terms of the effect and impact of the Human Rights Act (HRA) 1998 upon ......

The ECJ and ECHR Relationship
9th Feb 2021
Introduction: On one hand are all member-states of the EC/EU also parties to the ECHR and accepting the jurisdiction of the EctHR, on the other hand, the legal system of the European Community itself is not bound by the ECHR...

Flaminio Costa v ENEL - 1964
5th Jan 2021
Introduction: The claimant, Costa, was an Italian citizen with shares in the Italian electricity supply company Edisonvolta, and he sought......

Peck v UK - 2003
30th Dec 2020
Introduction: Release of CCTV footage of suicidal man breached Article 8 ECHR. The applicant was captured on CCTV as he carried a large knife and was in the process of attempting suicide....

Ireland v United Kingdom (1979-80) 2 EHRR 25
22nd Dec 2020
Introduction: Case Summary of Ireland v United Kingdom (1979-80) 2 EHRR 25. Article 3 of the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR), freedom from torture....

Prohibition and Misuse of Drugs Act
17th Dec 2020
Introduction: A drug has been described in the Oxford Dictionary as: “a medicine or other substance which has a physiological effect when ingested ......

Assessing The French Civil Code
14th Dec 2020
Introduction: In comparing the two, one can say that the French code is much easier to understand for the normal citizen than the German code is. ...

Debates on the Human Rights Act
11th Dec 2020
Introduction: Human Rights are those rights that are deemed to belong to all individuals by virtue of their humanity. Previously, these rights were referred ......

Right to Environment of Human Right
11th Dec 2020
Introduction: Of late the worldwide society has amplified its alertness on the relationship between environmental dilapidation and human rights abuses.Exercise and enjoyment of Human Rights by all the people is necessary for full development as human beings....

Does the EU Suffer From a Democratic Deficit?
3rd Dec 2020
Introduction: The european union has regularly been accused of suffering from a democratic deficit. If liberty and equality, as is thought by some, are chiefly to be found......

Charter of Fundamental Rights
3rd Dec 2020
Introduction: This paper seeks to determine what difference the ‘Charter of Fundamental Rights’ makes to the legal protection of fundamental rights of the European Union (EU) under the Treaty of Nice....

The Common Commercial Policy
3rd Dec 2020
Introduction: This essay is an attempt to critique the reform of the common commercial policy under the treaty of Lisbon. It explains the concept of common commercial policy since its evolution to the present treaty of Lisbon,...

Treaty of Lisbon
3rd Dec 2020
Introduction: The Treaty of Lisbon entered into force on 1 December 2009 in accordance with its Article 6 and was ratified by each of the European Union's 27 members....

The Lisbon Treaty
3rd Dec 2020
Introduction: In considering whether the Lisbon Treaty lays the federal debate to rest, or in fact brings us a step closer to a federal Europe, this report first outlines the nature and scope of the Treaty and its development to put this discussion into context....

The Methods of Law Making in the EU
3rd Dec 2020
Introduction: In order to accurately evaluate this statement, this short essay will discuss the political and legal growth of the European Union under......

English European Union Legal System
23rd Nov 2020
Introduction: Give an account of the main rules of statutory interpretation and illustrate their operation by reference to decided cases....

Parliamentary Sovereignty in the UK after HRA
18th Nov 2020
Introduction: In order to approach this question it is necessary to focus on a variety of issues. In order to determine if parliamentary has been overturned or refined by the Human Rights Act (HRA) 1998...

Supremacy of the European Union Law
11th Nov 2020
Introduction: The Lisbon Treaty is silent about the principle of the supremacy of the European Union law over national law. However, Declaration number 17 was attached to the aforementioned Treaty to this effect....

Supremacy of EU Law
11th Nov 2020
Introduction: The supremacy of EU law was always seen as the one posing two specific problems for the United Kingdom (thereinafter referred to as ......

Doctrine of Supremacy in the European Union
11th Nov 2020
Introduction: In a series of important rulings the European Court of Justice (ECJ) has developed the doctrine of supremacy of European Union (EU) over national ......

Relevance of ECJ (CJEU)
11th Nov 2020
Introduction: The direct effect and supremacy of European Union (EU) law is now an established facet of European jurisprudence....

EU Citizenship and Law on Free Movement
17th Oct 2019
Introduction: How far does the law on free movement suggest that EU citizenship should now be seen as the key status for persons moving between EU Member States?...

International Law Dissertation Topics
3rd Oct 2019
Introduction: We have collated for you a selection of 12 dissertation topics and ideas on European law, international and private international law. You are welcome to use these topics to help you create your own law dissertation topics......

R v Foreign Secretary (Gentle)
3rd Sep 2019
Introduction: The claimants were the mothers of two British servicemen killed serving in Iraq. Inquests were to be held into the circumstances of their deaths......

The Role that Prison Law Plays
20th Aug 2019
Introduction: 'Good order in prison is maintained by a mixture of formal and informal mechanisms.' In considering the proposition the 'Good order ......

The Institution of the Ombudsman
20th Aug 2019
Introduction: The Treaty of Maastricht created the institution of the Ombudsman which is a dispute resolution system between individuals and European ......

Contribution Legal Positivists
20th Aug 2019
Introduction: In this essay I will examine the contribution legal positivists have made to the question of what law is by looking at different theories from ......

Guinness Share Trading Scandal
20th Aug 2019
Introduction: The existing prosecuting authorities such as Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and Serious Fraud Office (SRO) deals with corporate and fraud cases....

The Law of Tort and Negligence
20th Aug 2019
Introduction: With reference to this assignment, I have opted to critically analyse the case of Z v United Kingdom which I think has a significant aspect ......

Judicial Precedent is Source of Law
20th Aug 2019
Introduction: Judicial precedent is the source of law where past decisions create law for judges to refer back to for guidance in future cases. Precedent is based upon the principle of stare decisis et non quieta movere, more commonly referred...

Dublin Convention and Immigration Law
20th Aug 2019
Introduction: The Dublin Convention came into force on 1 September 1997, providing criteria for establishing which Member State of the EU is responsible for ......

Victim Status Within Human Rights
20th Aug 2019
Introduction: NGOs and human rights lawyers are the main human rights protectors at national and international levels. Their participation in the process ......

The Protection of Individual Rights in UK
20th Aug 2019
Introduction: The Human Rights Act 1998 is the Labour party incorporation of the European Convention on Human Rights into United Kingdom law.1The principle ......

European Convention and Law of Defamation
20th Aug 2019
Introduction: Reputation is so important that the English law has made a law of defamation to protect the individual from having his/her reputation lowered ......

Repealing The Humans Rights Act
20th Aug 2019
Introduction: Every state has a fundamental duty to protect the rights and freedoms of its citizens. In the majority of democratic states, fundamental rights ......

Human Rights and the Right to Life
20th Aug 2019
Introduction: In this paper, one of the most important rights in the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) will be analyzed. Although this may seem ......

The Basic Purpose of Contract Law
20th Aug 2019
Introduction: The basic purpose of contract law is to provide a framework within which individuals can freely contract. The contract can legally bind the contracting parties by the creation of laws which are applicable...

Bound by European Court of Human Rights
20th Aug 2019
Introduction: Giving prisoners the right to vote has created a huge controversy within the UK, it is arguable that prisoners when in prison that do not have to ......

Common Law is Developed by Judges
19th Aug 2019
Introduction: Common law is developed by judges through decisions of courts and similar tribunals (also called case law), rather than through legislative statues or executive branch action....

Tribunal Procedures Effectiveness to Justice
19th Aug 2019
Introduction: Tribunals are a branch of the court system established by Act of Parliament to deal with disputes between the citizen and the state or between ......

Passing a Bill in Malaysia
19th Aug 2019
Introduction: What is bill? Bill is a law that does not yet get recognition to be stated as a law that can be implemented. In order to be stated as a law must ......

The Concept of Deterrence
19th Aug 2019
Introduction: The Concept Of Deterrence Is Fundamental To The Success Of A System Of Regulatory Sanctions, But Ensuring Optimal Deterrence Is Very Difficult....

Extra Judicial Punishments and Killings
19th Aug 2019
Introduction: Extra Judicial Killing is the killing of a person by governmental authorities without the sanction of any judicial proceeding or any legal ......

Intellectual Property Rights
19th Aug 2019
Introduction: Intellectual property rights are those exclusive rights granted to the owners there in to behave in a particular manner...

European Court of Justice
19th Aug 2019
Introduction: From the early years of the European Community as seen in Costa v ENEL [1964] ECR 585, where the European Court of Justice (ECJ) said that......

Non-natural Use of Land
16th Aug 2019
Introduction: The man in the street might legitimately expect the Common law to have developed a means by which persons who suffer personal injury or damage to their property due to the release of dangerous substances...

United Kingdom Joined the European Community
16th Aug 2019
Introduction: Two principles which give effect for Community law within UK are S2 (1) and S2 (4) of the European Communities Act 1972. Section2 (1) states that......

Liability to Tax on Income
16th Aug 2019
Introduction: Any analysis of liability to tax on income of taxpayers living and working abroad, particularly those engaged in a trading venture, is inevitably complex....

The European Union and its Effect
16th Aug 2019
Introduction: Discus the United Kingdoms accession to the European Union and its effect on the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty....

Voluntary Euthanasia
16th Aug 2019
Introduction: Voluntary Euthanasia Law Essay. The subject of death does not seem to be openly discussed in society. Thus, it's no wonder that the issues relating to euthanasia and withdrawal of life sustaining treatment are always treated with such caution....

Examining Criminal Procedure Code
16th Aug 2019
Introduction: The law relating to criminal procedure applicable to all criminal proceedings in India is contained in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1998. The ......

Civil Court Structure of Scotland
16th Aug 2019
Introduction: The Scottish legal system is divided into two distinct parts, the civil justice system and the Scottish criminal justice system, both of which ......

The Question about Validity of Postal Rule
16th Aug 2019
Introduction: INTRODUCTION The postal rule remains one of the most controversial and confusing part of modern contract law as it diverts from the general rule ......

Judicial Precedent as Practice of the Courts
15th Aug 2019
Introduction: Judicial precedent is best understood as a practice of the courts and not as a set of binding rules. As a practice it could be refined or changed ......

The History of Defamation
15th Aug 2019
Introduction: The recent history of defamation is marked by continuing conflict between the need to protect the character and privacy of individuals, on the one ......

International Carriage of Goods by Sea
15th Aug 2019
Introduction: In the current case, the infestation of beetle is in point with the facts of Compania de Naviera Nedelka SA v Tradax International SA, The Tres Flores....

Employment Contract Rights
14th Aug 2019
Introduction: Employment Contract Rights. The aim of this write up is to explain Employment Law and using the issues in case study provided to advise the client Julia. The advice will show what course of action if any the client can take if any of the issues illustrate a breach of contract by the employer...

An Analysis of International Copyright Legislation
14th Aug 2019
Introduction: 'Where works are available only in digital form, the exceptions to and limitations upon copyright protection envisaged by most of the international copyright treaties are almost entirely neutralised'...

Sexual Orientation Discrimination Laws
14th Aug 2019
Introduction: To critically analyse sexual orientation discrimination laws and problems recognised with the right to have a religion and religious beliefs ......

Patentability of Computer Programs or Software
14th Aug 2019
Introduction: The concept of patents is considered to have originated from the Venetian Statute of 1474 in Italy, issued by the Republic of Venice. The main aim of this concept was to recognize the efforts of inventors...

Different Persons in UK Employment Law
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: The distinction between the notions of ‘employee’, ‘worker’ and ‘self-employed’ persons is not sufficiently clear in the UK employment ......

Requirements for a Contract in Roman Law
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: Roman Law: “Examine the three elements required for a valid contract and illustrate how the law relating to them developed.”...

Doctrine of Precedent and Principle of Law
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: The doctrine of precedent means identical cases are treated alike (the principle of stare decisis). Lower courts in the United Kingdom are ......

Concept of Legitimate Expectation
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: This paper examines the origins and rationale of the concept of legitimate expectation. The doctrine of legitimate expectation and the limit ......

Common Law on Rape
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: I will start this essay by stating that it is relatively difficult to disagree with the statement in the question that until recently the development of the common law...

Most Important Source of English Law
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: Case-law, also known as Common law, is a main source of law; this is because most modern English Law has not become statutory. Therefore ......

The Doctrine of Freedom of Contract
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: The doctrine of freedom of contract has always been respected by the Law, which allows parties to provide for the terms and conditions that will govern the relationship....

Elective Dictatorship and Judicial Review
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: Topic arising from the title of this essay is present, especially in these days. However, its background can be found in the history of every ......

Constitutional Law of the European Union
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: The Residents Generally And (Ii) The Gardeners Specifically, Rely On On The Directive Either Against Fattenam Or The UK Government?...

Human Rights and Civil Liberties
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: United Kingdom despite the fact that it lacks a Bill of Rights or any other formal document that guarantee the fundamental rights of an ......

Law of Defamation and Human Rights
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: The need to protect someone’s reputation is so important that under the English legal system there is a law of defamation. It is in place ......

The Violation of Civil and Political Rights
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: In this paper I will discuss the question reffering to the State’s role in violations of civil and political rights. How does the State relate ......

Competition Laws in the United Kingdom
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: The hurdles encountered since the enactment of the Competition Act 1998 and the Enterprise Act 2002 are examined, as well as the developments......

Pregnancy Discrimination in the Work place
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: Pregnancy discrimination has always been omnipresent in the daily working life across western European countries. Over a long period of time ......

Educational Law
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: This essay will be divided into two parts. The first part will analyse the right of children to an education....

Peer to Peer Technology Copyright
8th Aug 2019
Introduction: Peer to Peer Technology Copyright. P2P is the most recent manifestation of how new technology challenges existing copyright law both in the US and Europe. Critically evaluate the extent to which copyright law has responded or ought to respond to the issues raised by such technological developments....

The Development of Case Law in Europe
8th Aug 2019
Introduction: Europe is meant the countries that do up the European Union. The Law of registered trademarks, unfair competition, misappropriation of member of st......

Competition Law
8th Aug 2019
Introduction: essay question before us falls within the area of competition law and particularly within the area of Article 82 of the European Community. “Competition means a struggle or contention for superiority, and in the commercial world......

Freedom of Expression and Democracy
8th Aug 2019
Introduction: A fundamental characteristic of modern democratic states is the existence of the right to freedom of expression, which includes the freedom ......

Terrorism Legislation v. EC human rights
8th Aug 2019
Introduction: In seeking to critically discuss the impact of recent terrorism legislation on rights recognised under Article 5 of the European Convention......

Comparative Legal Studies
8th Aug 2019
Introduction: The central aim of the European Community is to promote economic integration via the quest for a supra-national legal order. The way in which this is to happen is through harmonisation...

The Fundamental Doctrines of EC Law
8th Aug 2019
Introduction: Using The Relevant Case Law, Analytically And Critically Discuss The Relationship Between The Supremacy And The Direct Effect Of EC Law....

Protection by European Law: Crop Pollution
8th Aug 2019
Introduction: A problem questions that plays particular regard to the principles of direct effect and indirect effect, incidental direct effect and state liability....

Criminal Trials: The Effect of Silence
8th Aug 2019
Introduction: Parliament has created a number of rules that allow the failure of the accused to answer allegations to be admitted as evidence of the defendant’s guilt....

A Fundamental Constitutional Principle
8th Aug 2019
Introduction: This Question Makes The Assumption That There Are Some Guards Against Excessive Concentration Of Power, But The Existence Of Such Guards Has Been Questioned By Many....

The Freedom of Information
8th Aug 2019
Introduction: The communication structure in a country should be one which allows for a national and international balance that is beneficial to it and to ......

Breach of Treaty at Customs Case
8th Aug 2019
Introduction: The Union shall comprise a custom union which shall cover all trade in goods and which shall involve the prohibition between Member States of customs duties on imports and exports......

The Origin of Civil Law
8th Aug 2019
Introduction: As well-known civil law or also known as civilian law is a legal system which is influenced by the Roman law and in especially the Corpus... ...

Confidentiality and Privacy
8th Aug 2019
Introduction: Confidentiality remains one of the most controversial topics in the arbitration since the 1980s....

Compensation for Pure Psychiatric Harm
8th Aug 2019
Introduction: 'The law on the recovery of compensation for pure psychiatric harm is a patchwork quilt of distinctions which are difficult to justify', Lord ......

Comparing English and French Legal Systems
8th Aug 2019
Introduction: “Legal systems are there to determine what will happen when people have disputes. Legal rules are also there so people can order their lives in ......

Constitutional Role of the Judiciary
8th Aug 2019
Introduction: The constitutional role of the judiciary is the application of legislation, if the wording of the legislation is ambiguous or unclear, then its meaning will need to be interpreted....

Annulment Action Against an EU Measure
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: There are several conditions which must be fulfilled for an applicant to bring an annulment action against an EU measure under Article 230 EC. In order for it to be judicially reviewable, the contested Act...

EC Laws on Anti-competitive Business Behaviour
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: If decisions are based on the normal conditions of market, oligopolies would be vulnerable and normal parallel pricing would be held to concerted effort....

Contract Law Remedies
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: Contract Law Remedies. The Remedies for unexcused non-performance of the contract under French and English Law. Comparative study considering the influence of the Principles of European Contract law...

Patent Technology Devices
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: Patent Technology Devices - The patent scheme is designed to protect technology devices, actual machines, and new chemical biotechnological/nano-technological compositions rather than pure concepts...

Uk's Constitutional Arrangements
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: In light of the statement above, the arguments for and against codifying the UK's constitution will be set out in the following essay and especially considering the arguments with regards to codification and the impact of it on the Rule of Law, Parliamentary Sovereignty, Judicial Review and the Human Rights of UK citizens....

Explain the Margin of Appreciation Doctrine
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: Introduction The national authorities of Contracting States to the European Convention of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1950) (‘ECHR’)......

Britain and America's Constitution in Comparison
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: In this essay I will be discussing Britain’s constitution and will look at America’s constitution briefly in comparison. Then I will be discussing whether Britain needs a codified constitution like America or whether Britain runs well as it is....

Explain the Sources of English Law
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: This essay examines the different ways English law is created and then evaluates the role of legislation as the most important source of law. ......

European Employment Contract
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: Labor law, also referred to as employment law, is the organization of laws, directorial rulings, and guides which attend to the lawful rights of, and limitations......

Legal Advice on Exports to EC Countries
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: Article 28 EC quantitative restrictions on imports and all measures having equivalent effect shall be prohibited between Member States....

Comparison of Civil and Common Law
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: In this part of my essay, I am going to compare civil and common law. First of all, before comparing those two legal system, let me to give ......

Who An Employee Is
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: It has always been problematic to define an employee. The consequences of being an employee can have far reaching consequences for both employee ......

Impact of Legal Aid Cuts on Domestic Abuse and Immigration Cases
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: While campaigners against the cuts and reforms of legal aid in the United Kingdom seem to receive very little media attention, secondary sources of legislation ensure transparency of the most important and impactful measures taken by the government in creating political policies. ...

EU Legal System for Coordinating European Projects
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: Does applying and enforcing universal law through direct effect to 28 countries create a more cohesive EU? For the purposes of this paper peaceful cooperation is defined as the fluidity throughout the four freedoms without causing serious political tension, such as trade embargos....

Impact of the European Union on Environmental Laws
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: The primary legislation of the EU, called the Treaties underpin the development of all EU laws. The treaties are a set of international treaties between EU member states which outline the EU’s constitutional basis. ...

The CJEU's Reasoning
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: Free movement of goods (FMG) is one of the four cornerstones of the internal market....

Human Rights European Convention
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: The only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community against his will is to prevent harm to others....

The Treatment Excessive Pricing
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: Taking into account the definition given by Cosmo Graham on what constitutes an excessive pricing it can be said that it is: the classic offence of a monopolist....

Judicial Controls for European Union Legal Powers
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), under Articles 263 and 267, contains two provisions that are judicial controls which ensure the legal powers of the European Union (EU) institutions are being properly exercised....

The Identity of EU National
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: Besides, the derogation may be imposed by the host State under Article 45(3) TFEU, and the restrictions on the right of entry and right of residence......

Is State Liability a Genuine Contribution?
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: The ability of private parties to enforce European Community law in national courts is now an essential feature of the integrated legal system......

Free Movement of Labour Immigration
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: The question of immigration and movement of workers within the European Union has become an increasingly important issue in EU politics. One of ......

Role of North Atlantic Treaty Organization
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: 1. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) also called North Atlantic Alliance is an intergovernmental military Alliance. NATO is an Alliance ......

Speech and Expression
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: The international instruments of human rights have adopted the word �expression' for the right to freedom of expression and they have chosen it in preference to......

Introduction to the Concept of Free Movement
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: The Treaty of Rome envisaged from the onset a common market and economic policy between MSs characterised by free movement within the internal ......

Federal Polity Essay
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: Federalism is classically defined as a system of government in which the distribution of power is governed by a constitution and the two elements, the centralised authority and the constituent units, are interdependent and independently......

What Is Plea Bargaining?
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: They are certain key decisions that people who are being prosecuted have to make. One of the most important is how you plead. A plea is formal......

Lex Mercatoria
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: In this answer we will discuss about consideration of the principles of European contract law as autonomous lex mercatoria or universal lex mercatoria. Further we will discuss about the recognition of lex mercatoria...

Legal Status of Eastern Greenland
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: A suit was instituted before the Permanent Court of International Justice (hereinafter PCIJ) by Royal Danish Government against the Royal Norwegian Government over the legal status of certain territories in Eastern Greenland....

The Sources of Human Rights
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: The European Convention of Human Rights of 1950 which was adopted in 1953 is a Council of Europe Treaty under which member states of the same ......

Unfair Commercial Practices
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: The 2008 Regulations, implemented the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive 2005/29/EC which prohibits unfair commercial practices that infringe ......

The Belgium Civil Law System
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: Belgium is a federal state with a civil law system. Civil law system has its origin and inspirations from Roman law, as codified in the Corpus ......

Comparative Analysis
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: The subject of this dissertation is the retention of title clause (ROT) in Belgium, the United Kingdom and the European perspective. Retention of title is on the crossroads of several law themes. It involves contractual issues......

Misuse of Private Information
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: Privacy springs from the same source as freedom of expression, therefore it is for the Courts to decide where the balance is to be struck between ......

Intellectual Property
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: The ECJ has recently taken to another level what constitutes unfair advantage in relation to comparative advertising with regards to protection of trade marks with reputation or well know brands....

Rights of Agents on Agency Agreements
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: This dissertation is concerned with the rights of agents to compensatory payments on the termination of their agency agreements. Agency may ......

Transition from Genentech to Biogen
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: Since its birth, the biotechnology boom has only experienced an upswing. Biotechnology has created an independent knowledge-based economy of its ......

Interpretation of Patent Claims in UK
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: Cargo Pharmaceuticals International Inc. is a generic pharmaceutical manufacturer. It does not conduct research and development itself into new ......

The Concept of Predatory Pricing
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: Predatory Pricing is an area of law which is problematic. The lack of clarity in case law creates variant approaches from the relevant authorities....

Relationship between EC and Domestic Law
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: hellip; EC Law Has Paramountcy Over National Law Because Parliament In Passing The 1972 Act Intended This … If A Future Parliament Were To Provide Otherwise, The UK Courts Would Be Obliged To Give Effect To National Law....

Examining the Fair Balance Principle
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: The statement calls for an examining of the principle of fair balance. In doing so, the writer will consider a critical analysis of the principle ......

Role of Business Ethics in Society
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: BUSINESS LAWS AND BUSINESS ETHICS Abstract: the economy of a country or state is dependent of business, trade, industries and products. Business ......

Justify the Patenting of Life Saving Drugs
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: There have been wide-ranging debates about the introduction of patents on pharmaceuticals in developing countries. On the one hand, it has been ......

EC Treaty - Vertical Block Exemption
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: Competition is a vital mechanism of the market economy and is an efficient means of guaranteeing consumers a level of quality in terms of the value...

Effect of Anti Money Laundering Legislation
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: According to the House of Lords (2009) money laundering is defined as a process through which a particular source of an overwhelmingly acquired ......

Uncitral Model Law on Cross Border Insolvency
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: Most trading nations have developed their insolvency laws for different reasons and based on different policies due to which the countries have dif......

The European Convention of Human Rights
2nd Aug 2019
Introduction: It has also its own Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. In 1949, 25 European states formed a body known as the council of Europe. The Convention ......

Subject Matter for Trademarks
2nd Aug 2019
Introduction: Introduction With the significant development and globalisation of the economic activities and liberalization of trade and business, there ......

Trans Border Data Flow
2nd Aug 2019
Introduction: CONTENTS. 0. Introduction. 1. Defining Trans-border Data Flow/Personal Information. 0. Concerns for Trans-border Data Flow Under ......

Application of Margin of Appreciation
2nd Aug 2019
Introduction: The application of margin of appreciation in the jurisprudence of European Court of Human Rights is devoid of consistency and uniformity. Each ......

Globalisation and Branding
2nd Aug 2019
Introduction: This paper analyses the power of trademarks to attract consumers and how it has led to the evolution of brand-based marketing as a distinct form of economic activity....

The Principle of Party Autonomy
2nd Aug 2019
Introduction: The implementation of the Regulation by the Commission had the objective of the the adoption of uniform rules on the law applicable ......

Commercial Agents Regulations in the UK
2nd Aug 2019
Introduction: Background and Rationale The Commercial Agency Regulations 1993 implement an EC Directive which aims to reinforce the legal protection ......

The Freedom of Establishment
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: In addition to the possibility of the movement of workers, students and families envisioned in the Common Market, and derived from the doctrine of......

Freedom of Movement of Goods
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: The applicable legal regime is that of the freedom of movement of goods contained in the EC Treaty under Articles 25 and 90, concerned with taxation....

Domicile in Common Law Systems
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: Domicile is the connecting factor traditionally used in common law systems. It has typically been a tricky concept to define but domicile ......

The Powerful Right of Trademarks
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: Introduction A trade mark is a way for one party to distinguish themselves from another. In business, a trade mark provides a product ......

The Syndicated Loan Agreement
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: For the case at hand, given its situation within the fictional country of Ruritania, the legislation concerning the syndicated loan agreement ......

Issues With the European Arrest Warrant
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: Introduction This thesis shall be focusing on the European Arrest Warrant and some issues that arise when using this legal tool for extraditing ......

Rewe-Zentral AG v Bundesmonopolverwaltung für Branntwein
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: This topic is about the free movement of goods, which is one of the four fundamental freedoms set out by the European treaties to facilitate and promote the EU as a common market, now internal market....

Many Influences on Parliament
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: The influences on parliament can be many; here are some of the influences; The government of the day will have had a party manifesto. This ......

Competition Law SMP and Dominant Positions
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: The following research paper is titled 'Competition Law: SMP and Dominant Positions'. Competition Law also known as Anti-trust law in various ......

European Law versus National Law
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: The European Union (EU) is constantly accused of invading the nooks and crannies of national life. In 1974 Lord Denning famously compared what is now......

Union Citizen
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: In relation to the spouse, Article 2(2) Directive 2004/38 defines it as family members, Article 2(2)(b) states that “the partner with whom the......

The Value of Union Citizenship Lies
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: European Union citizenship deals with a number of aspects in relation to citizens of the European Union such as social, civil and political aspects which will be discussed through the case-law of the Court...

English Conflict of Laws in Relation to Issues of Jurisdiction
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: Making use of relevant case law (where available) explain and discuss how, and to what extent, the old Brussels Convention and the new Council regulation 44/2001 have affected and altered traditional rules of English Conflict of Laws in relation......

Law of Defamation
22nd Jul 2019
Introduction: Law of defamation. The aim of this study is to consider, via an analytical approach, the effect on the law of defamation of the implementation of the European Convention on Human Rights and the Human Rights 1998 and whether or not the law of defamation strikes......

European Union Law Semester Essay
22nd Jul 2019
Introduction: Is State liability a genuine contribution to ensuring that individuals can enforce rights conferred on them by European Union law or is it simply a......

Great Power Come Great Responsibility
22nd Jul 2019
Introduction: “With great power there must also come…great responsibility”; this very notion illustrates the ‘duties and responsibilities’...

TD Droit Européen: Supremacy
22nd Jul 2019
Introduction: “Our sovereignty has been taken away by the European Court of Justice … Our courts must no longer enforce our national laws. They must enforce ......

Allowing EU Citizens to Sue
22nd Jul 2019
Introduction: The principle of direct effect is a technique developed to guarantee the supremacy of EU law. It refers to the status of EU law and whether it can ......

EU Competition Law Forbids Companies
18th Jul 2019
Introduction: On 1st June 2010, the new EU Vertical Block Exemption Regulation (VBER) and the accompanying new Vertical Restraints Guidelines......

European Convention on Human Rights
18th Jul 2019
Introduction: There can be no doubt that the interpretation principles applied by the Court introduce an element of relativity to the ECHR. For example, the principle of reading the Convention....

European Union Sovereignty
18th Jul 2019
Introduction: European Union Sovereignty. The impact of European law on the 'sovereignty' of Member States is one of the most controversial aspects of its working. Sovereignty is generally taken to be the capacity of a state for independent action both within and outside its own territory....

Immigration Politics in France and Britain
18th Jul 2019
Introduction: In Europe, 80% of migratory flows are concentrated in five countries: France, Spain, Italy, the United Kingdom and Germany (French ministry of ......

Legal Issues of the Adolf Eichmann Trial
18th Jul 2019
Introduction: This is a case proposing from Attorney general of Israel to Adolf Eichmann. Eichmann was a German Nazi and a SS-Obersturmbannführer equivalent ......

Do Judges Represent Society Fairly?
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Lord Lester of Herne Hill has claimed that the judges to date have been very successful in interpreting the essential provisions of European Community Law....

Diplomatic Immunity
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Diplomatic immunity is a part of international law that states that representatives of foreign governments are exempted from the jurisdiction of local courts as well as other authorities....

Market Abuse and Affected Trade
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Any abuse by one or more undertakings of a dominant position within the common market or in a substantial part of it shall be prohibited as incompatible with the common market insofar as it may affect trade between Member States....

European Court of Justice
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: European Court of Justice. Compare the use of precedent in the UK courts and in the European Court of Justice, and explain to what extent the UK courts are affected by European Legal Methods....

Functions of the EU Commission
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: With reference to the structure, role and functions of the EU Commission, the EU Council of Ministers and the EU Parliament, critically explain to what extent you consider the EU to be a democratic organization....

Tax Havens: Are the Netherlands a Tax Haven?
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: University Maastricht Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maastricht, 14 januari 2011 Bessems, J.P.M.N. I394696 Fiscal Economics Main ......

The Effectiveness of EC Law
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: This essay goes on to discuss a very important component of the European Union: the enforceability of its laws. Sometimes, accidentally or not, a Member State acts in conflict with EU law and therefore...

Substantive Legitimate Expectations
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: The Coughlan case is a leading decision with respect to the issue of ‘substantive legitimate expectations’ and the purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate the arguments in favour of, as well as against,...

Tax Harmonisation in the European Union
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: The need to change the structure of taxation systems in Europe has increased with the pressure on fiscal revenues facing the ageing of the......

The Free Movement of Goods
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: The free movement of goods is an essential element of the internal market and both EU legislation and the decisions of the Court of Justice support the achievement of this aspect of economic integration....

Group of Companies Doctrine
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: The first one is that the company that did not sign the arbitration agreement or was not apart in the arbitration clause has played a role in concluding, performing.....

The EU’s Decision Making Process
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Law ESSAY III The Eu’s decision – making process in general and the co-decision procedure in particular involve three main institutions....

Concept of Proportionality in Law
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: The concept of proportionality originates in German administrative law. In R (Daly) v Secretary of State for the Home Department, Lord Steyn ......

Abuse of a Dominant Position in Business
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: An aspect that must be taken into account when defining the dominant position is the extent to which a customer would choose one product over another....

The Limitations on the Application
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: In the previous section, the general scope of the Article 34 TFEU and how it gained its current form via case law (Dassonville Case) have been ......

Aspects of the Doctrine of Supremacy
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: This work will look at four cases that considered aspects of the doctrine of supremacy. This work has particular emphasis on internet resources....

Anti Dumping As a Form of Protectionism
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Dumping can be defined as the act of a manufacturer in one country exporting a product to another country at a price which is either below ......

Protect the Environment Requires Strict Enforcement
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: To begin with a brief explanation of what Secondary legislation is? It is law made by an executive authority under powers given to them by primary legislation in order to implement and administer the requirements......

End of the Real Seat Theory
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: In a long awaited judgement delivered on 5 November 2002,(1) the European Court of Justice (ECJ) has ruled that it is incompatible with the freedom of establishment guaranteed in Arts....

The Council of Europe and Cybercrime
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: The Council of Europe was founded in 1949 by 10 member countries. Today, it is made up of 47 countries, including all members of the European Union....

R (Bidar) v London Borough of Ealing
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Analyse the Court of Justice ruling in The Queen (on application of Dany Bidar) v London Borough of Ealing & Secretary of State for Education and Skills...

European Community and National Law
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: European Community and National Law - The relationship between community and national law was established in one the earliest cases to......

The European Union
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: The European Union (EU) is the unification of at present twenty-seven independent states based on the European Communities originated to enhance political, economic and social co-operation....

Human Rights Law
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: “The freedom of expression constitutes one of the essential foundations of a democratic society, one of the basic conditions for its progress and for the development of everyman”,...

Francovich v Italy
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: One of the defining and controversial characteristics of the European Union has been the supranational nature of its institutions and laws....

Non-discrimination Legislation
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: The European Union has actively been involved with non-discrimination legislation since the 1970s when gender equality laws were introduced....

What is the EU?
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Cooperation between the EU member states is largely based on facilitating the free movement of goods, persons, services and capital within the EU, ......

European Court of Human Rights of Transsexuals
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: For over the past 30 years or so, the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) was 'reluctant to recognise any positive duty upon the United Kingdom� towards legal recognition of the new sexual identity of transsexuals....

One of the Most Important Rights
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: The meaning of the term 'worker' is a matter of European Community law and holds the same meaning in all EU Member States. The primary feature ......

Le Fanu v Malcolmson - 1848
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: The Plaintiffs were the owners of various factories in Ireland. They raised an action of libel against newspaper publishers....

R (Gentle) v Foreign Secretary
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: The claimants were the mothers of two British servicemen killed serving in Iraq. Inquests were to be held into the circumstances......

Lister v Forth Dry Dock
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: Following financial difficulties, the defendants, Forth Dry Dock, entered receivership. Forth Dry Dock was sold to a third party company......

The Principles of Supremacy
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: The principle of direct effect was created by the ECJ in the revolutionary case of Van Gend en Loos. Effectively it confers direct effect on EC law......

Judicial Protection of Prisoners Rights
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: The issue of prisoners’ rights has recently taken to the headlines of our national newspapers once again, the focus this time on the matter of overcrowding. Mr. Justice Michael Reilly,...

European Union Council
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: European Union Council. Before I take up the question of undemocratic nature of the institutional structure of EU, I would like to consider the major power-wielder institutions....

EU Legislation
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: When the Noxious Plant Directive was adopted in December 2006, it should have been implemented by all Member States by January 2008,...

What is Direct Effect?
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: First of all what is Direct effect, it is a rule that goes under the European Union law and the European Court of justice established the Direct effect...

Kaya v Turkey (1999) 28 EHRR 1
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: Kaya v Turkey (1999) 28 EHRR 1. Unlawful killing by state action and failure to bring to justice the perpetrator(s)....

The UK is Bound by Laws of the EU
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: Courts of the UK, when facing an issue regarding EU Laws often seek guidance from the European Court of Justice. Citizens of member states......

The Community Designs Regulation
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: The Community Designs Regulation was adopted on 12 December 2001.A Community Design has been categorised into unregistered Community design and registered Community design....

HP Bulmer Ltd v J Bollinger SA
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: The appellants, Bulmer, created a product called Babycham which they also described as ‘champagne perry’. The claimants, Bollinger, asserted that the......

Kokkinakis v Greece - Case Summary
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: Kokkinakis v Greece 1993 ECHR 20. Freedoms under article 9, article 10 and article 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights...

Dhanani v Crasnianski
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: The defendant, Mr Crasnianski was a scientist and inventor. He met the claimant, Mr Dhanani by chance on the Eurostar whilst travelling from Paris to......

European Court Justice Treaty
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: European Court Justice Treaty. Article 234 of the EC Treaty, is a judicial device which provides the European Court of Justice (ECJ) with the power to ensure that the law established by the Treaties has the......

Osman v UK
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: Case Summary of Osman v United Kingdom (UK) Case No: 87/1997/871/1083. Mrs Mulkiye Osman was born in Cyprus in 1948 and her son, Ahmet Osman, was born in England in 1972......

Free Movement of Companies
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: The paper analyses the arguments for a 14th Company Law Directive. In analysing this issue, the research will focus on current European company law and analyse......

DPP for Northern Ireland v Lynch
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: On the 29th January 1972, the appellant was instructed by members of the IRA to drive them to a specific location in Belfast. One of the men in the car......

Macarthys v Smith
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: The claimant, Ms Smith, was a factory employee of the defendants, Macarthys, for which she received a salary of £50 per week. She complained......

Human Rights Freedom
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: Human Rights refers to the fundamental rights and freedom enjoyed by human beings, mainly dealing with individual rights and responsibilities......

Francovich v. Italy [1991]
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: Case C-6&9/90 Francovich v. Italy [1991] ECR I-5357. Supranational nature of its institutions and laws...

Matthews v Ministry of Defence - Summary
13th Jul 2019
Introduction: Matthews was an electrical mechanic in the Royal Navy for some 13 years. Decades after his service ended he was diagnosed as having asbestos-related......

The European Union Competition Law
9th Jul 2019
Introduction: The European Union competition law only applies to ‘undertakings’. In Article 101, 102 (ex Article 82 EC) and 106(ex Article 86 EC) of the TFEU there was no specific definition of undertakings, this lead......

Single Market in the European Union
9th Jul 2019
Introduction: The Treaty established the European Economic Community in 1957 which opened the doors to eliminating the tax barriers within the community and put ......

Trade Mark Quality
9th Jul 2019
Introduction: An end consumer is deceived if he buys a good presuming it to have been originated from a certain source where actually it is not. The trade mark......

Overview of the EU Institutions
9th Jul 2019
Introduction: The legal and political basis of the institutions The three main decision-making institutions are: The European Parliament, which represents the ......

Direct and Individual Concern
9th Jul 2019
Introduction: Direct and Individual Concern. The Requirement for 'Direct and Individual concern' under A. 230(4) and The Right To Judicial Review...

Direct Effect is a Basic Principle
9th Jul 2019
Introduction: Direct effect is a basic principle of Community law. It was established by the Court of Justice of the European Communities in the Van Gend en Loos judgment....

R v Misra and Srivastava
5th Jul 2019
Introduction: Two doctors were convicted of gross negligence manslaughters when their post-operative patient became infected with a staphylococcus aureus......

Importation and Article 30
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: The Commission v Germany case stated there are three exceptions to Article 30......

EU Law
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: In Case 152/84 Marshall v Southampton and South-West Hampshire Area Health Authority (Teaching) [1986] ECR 723, the Court of Justice created an artificial and arbitrary barrier to the horizontal enforcement of directives....

Free Movement of Workers Within the EU
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: According to which those self-employed persons who 'exercise official authority' also may not move freely interstate between posts of employment....

Actions for Damages in Private Enforcement
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: The case of Devenish is primarily an action for damages; however, the case has a much more significant impact than can be comprehended from the judgment alone....

Customs Duties on Imports and Exports
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: The EU is, at its core a common market which necessitates that goods flow between its constituent member states unimpeded by customs duties and other measures....

The Free Movement of Goods
2nd Jul 2019
Introduction: The Internal Market, promoting the free movement of goods, services, capital and people, is one of the most significant and consistently progressing objectives for the European Union (EU)....

European Sports Law
2nd Jul 2019
Introduction: The basis of whether European sports law is incapable of recognising the specificities of sport is the subject of debate in this essay....

R v C (Barry)
28th Jun 2019
Introduction: The defendant was convicted on a number of counts of sexual and violent offences against four different women between the years of 1967-1987....

Distance Selling and E Commerce directives
28th Jun 2019
Introduction: John ordered a number of small items from e-Toys4U.hk for his child’s birthday. The items included a games console together with several games ......

R v Rimmington - 2006
27th Jun 2019
Introduction: Rimmington, the defendant, sent 538 separate postal packages to individuals. These were of a crude, racist and obscene nature......

Soering v UK Case Summary
27th Jun 2019
Introduction: Case Summary of Soering v United Kingdom (1989) 11 EHRR 439. Extradition and articles 3, 6 and 13 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)....

The Direct Effect of Community Law
25th Jun 2019
Introduction: The direct effect of community law allows individuals the right to enforce their community law rights in national courts. However this principle is not expressly stated in the Treaty, so the European Court of Justice has had to rely on subjective approach to develop these rights,...

S.A.S. v. France [2014] ECHR 695
25th Jun 2019
Introduction: Case Summary of SAS v France [2014] ECHR 695. The case concerned the rights of individuals to manifest their freedom of religion...

Free Movement of Goods - 110 TFEU
24th Jun 2019
Introduction: This essay shall explore several aspects of Article 110 of the Treaty of Functioning of the European Union (EU)...

Treaty on European Union Summary
21st Jun 2019
Introduction: The Treaty on European Union (TEU) finds its origins in the Treaty of Maastricht, which came into effect in 1993....

General Principle of Non-discrimination - Article 18 TFEU
21st Jun 2019
Introduction: Article 18 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) was introduced to prohibit 'any discrimination on grounds of nationality' so that all nationals and EU citizens could be treated equally within the scope of the Treaties....

Liability for Goods Lecture
20th Jun 2019
Introduction: The purchaser of goods, which turn out to be defective, will sue in contract for breach of the terms implied by the Sale of Goods Act 1979......

Judicial Precedent 1 Lecture
20th Jun 2019
Introduction: Judicial precedent means the process whereby judges follow previously decided cases where the facts are of sufficient similarity....

ECJ Lecture Notes
20th Jun 2019
Introduction: Court of Justice of the European Communities. The function of the European Court of Justice (ECJ), which sits in Luxembourg......

Articles for EU Competition Law
18th Jun 2019
Introduction: The main aim of Article 101 is to provide redress to those affected by any restrictions that are placed on free competition within the internal market...

Lisbon Treaty
18th Jun 2019
Introduction: The Treaty of Lisbon entered into force on 1 December 2009 in accordance with its Article 6> and was ratified by each of the European Union’s (EU) 27 members....

Free Movement Of Workers In The EU
18th Jun 2019
Introduction: Regulation 492/2011 was created to codify the previous regulation, so as to avoid confusion. It was also created to help promote migration....

Case 6/64 Flaminio Costa v E.N.E.L
18th Jun 2019
Introduction: In 1962 the Italian Republic introduced a law which nationalised the production and *427 distribution of electricity and created an organisation......

R (Wheeler) v Office of the PM
17th Jun 2019
Introduction: The claimant (W) applied for permission to seek judicial review of the decision of the Office of the Prime Minister......

Blackburn v Attorney General - 1971
14th Jun 2019
Introduction: The claimant, Blackburn, asserted that the decision by Parliament to allow Britain to join the Economic Community and sign the......

Garden Cottage Foods v Milk Marketing Board
14th Jun 2019
Introduction: The Milk Marketing Board (MMB) produced most of the bulk butter in the UK. They announced they would no longer sell any to Garden Cottage Foods (GCF)....

Issues with Discrimination Laws
11th Jun 2019
Introduction: This essay considers the law of discrimination, specifically considering how the law does, and ought to select those groups of individuals whom warrant protection....

Article 267 & 45 TFEU
7th Jun 2019
Introduction: Due to the large number of Member States within the EU, there naturally exists a wide variety of domestic laws within the Union......

Article 110 TFEU
7th Jun 2019
Introduction: This essay shall explore several aspects of Article 110 of the Treaty of Functioning of the European Union (EU)...

The European Union Act 2011
7th Jun 2019
Introduction: The European Union Act of 2011 ['the Act'] introduces restrictions to the application and amendments in treaties relating to the European Union......

Sample Undergraduate 2:2 EU Law Assignment
7th Jun 2019
Introduction: An Undergraduate 2:2 EU Law Assignment Titled: 'The Development of Subsidiarity and Proportionality after the Implementation of the Lisbon Treaty'...

Article 101 TFEU - Competition
7th Jun 2019
Introduction: Article 101 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) prohibits any agreements or cartels between Member States......

Article 30 TFEU
7th Jun 2019
Introduction: Article 30 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union was introduced as part of the provisions relating to the free movement of goods....

The Introduction of the ECHR 1950
7th Jun 2019
Introduction: Following the Second World War and the horrors against humanity that had followed it, the United Nations had been given the impetus that was required......

Treaty on European Union
7th Jun 2019
Introduction: The Treaty on European Union ('TEU') finds its origins in the Treaty of Maastricht, which came into effect in 1993. Almost a decade previous......

Directive 2004/38- Union Citizens
7th Jun 2019
Introduction: Directive 2004/38 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States...

Subsidiarity in the EU and Brexit
7th Jun 2019
Introduction: In true subsidiarity, the European Union acts as a high decision organ mandated to tackle issues that previously were difficult to deal with at the state-level....

Effect of EU Membership on the UK Constitution
7th Jun 2019
Introduction: This essay will analyse how being a member of the European union and council of Europe has undermined the UK constitution to such an extent that the UK is no longer sovereign....

Impact of the European Union on UK Law Systems
7th Jun 2019
Introduction: This assignment is about the European Union impacting the UK law system making and to conclude whether it has weakened the UK judicial system or has enhanced it. ...

Comparison of National and EU Courts
7th Jun 2019
Introduction: The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) ensures ‘that in the interpretation and application of the treaties, the law is observed’....