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Effect of Race and Gender on Jury Decisions
Law Dissertation Examples
Introduction: Race and gender would appear to be two of the biggest prejudice at play within society. The case of R v Mirza first showcased some of the issues that arise through racial bias in a jury trial....

The Royal Prerogative in the UK
Essay: Constitutional Law
Introduction: This essay will aim to address what a Royal Prerogative is and the significance of this power within the U.K Legal framework. In addition, this essay will also look at how other areas of the law...

Money Laundering Essay
Essay: Finance Law
Introduction: A case study to consider, Standard Chartered Bank was fined by the FCA a total of £102.1 million in 2019 for failing to adhere to Money Laundering Regulations(MLR) of 2007....

HR Best Practices to avoid Covid-19 related lawsuit cases and claims
Essay: Employment Law
Introduction: During these challenging times, it is important for employers to continue to follow government regulations and laws and be mindful of their employees needs to ensure a healthy workplace environment and prevent lawsuits and claims....

Law of Causation Essay
Essay: Criminal Law
Introduction: Critically explain and discuss the law of causation, covering all relevant issues, including the general principles of causation and the situations in which the chain of causation is broken....

Process of the Criminal Justice System
Essay: Criminal Law
Introduction: The first part of the criminal justice process is the arrest. An arrest can happen whether someone has committed the crime or not. There are many circumstances where probable cause is a factor in why someone is arrested....

Comparison of Arguments in the Australian Bill of Rights Debate
Essay: Australian Law
Introduction: The article is properly researched and contains reliable sources and all the references are provided in the footnotes. The article provides a deep insight into the debate of the bill of rights in Australia....

Human Rights Act Impact on English law
Essay: Constitutional Law
Introduction: I will be examining the quotation made by Lord Irvine in the article entitled The Human Rights Act Two years on (2003) public law 308. I will ......

Rights and Obligations in the Tort of Negligence
Essay: Business Law
Introduction: The principle imposing liability in tort for careless behaviour was established in the leading case of Donoghue v Stevenson....

Breach of Duty of Care
Essay: Tort Law
Introduction: Breach Of Duty Of Care. Chris may have a contractual claim as well as a tort claim under the principle in Donoghue v. Stevenson(1) where Lord Adkin formulated the 'neighbour principle'....

Criteria for Raising a Civil Action in Negligence in Common Law
Essay: Common Law
Introduction: To understand the law surrounding negligence we must first look at the foundation of modern-day laws surrounding negligence at common law, these are derived from the case of Donoghue V Stevenson....

Question on Separation of Powers
Essay: Constitutional Law
Introduction: This essay will be analysing how significantly this legislation has managed to achieve full separation of powers throughout the various branches of state....

Structure of Human Rights Act
Essay: Constitutional Law
Introduction: The Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) is an outstanding pieces of legislation in the last decade and therefore needs no further introduction. It always ......

Human Rights Act 1998
Essay: Human Rights Law
Introduction: The Human Rights Act 1998. The Human Rights Act gives every citizen a clear statement of rights and responsibilities, and it requires all of us in public services to respect human rights in everything we do (Blair 1999: 1)....

Constitutional Implications on Human Rights
Essay: Human Rights Law
Introduction: Constitutional Implications on Human Rights.Taking as example at least two of the Articles of the European Convention on Human Rights,(now incorporated into domestic law following the Human Rights Act 1998), explain the constitutional implications, with particular reference to the role of the judiciary....

Human Rights Convention
Essay: Human Rights Law
Introduction: Human Rights Convention. The Human Rights Act 1998, came into force in full on 2nd October 2000; guaranteeing the Convention rights of the individual against interference by the state and enabling people in the UK to enforce these rights and liberties in UK courts....

European Court of Human Rights Act
Essay: Administrative Law
Introduction: HUMAN RIGHT ACT 1988 The Human Rights Act 1998 is a United Kingdom Act of Parliament which received Royal Assent on November 9, 1998, and ......

Human Rights Act 1998 and the Law Relating to Land
Essay: General Law
Introduction: The Human Rights Act 1998 (which incorporate the European Convention on Human Rights into our law (the Convention)) is having a significant impact on domestic law, and when it was implemented in October 2000, there was a lot of speculation about its effect......

Judicial Review and the Human Rights Act
Essay: Administrative Law
Introduction: The incorporation of the European Convention on Human Rights into UK law by way of the Human Rights Act 1998 which came into force on 2 October ......

Unintended Uses of the Human Rights Act
Essay: Constitutional Law
Introduction: After the incorporation of European Convention of Human Rights via the Human Rights Act 1998, there have been considerable critical commentaries ......

Outline the Main Provisions of the Human Rights Act 1998
Essay: Administrative Law
Introduction: The European Convention on Human Rights came into being in the aftermath of World War 2 to prevent the types of human rights violations and ......

Common Law Reasoning and Human Rights Act
Essay: Constitutional Law
Introduction: The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) was envisaged to prevent the repetition of the immense Human Rights violation as experienced in ......

Issues on Duress and Assessment of the Appeal of Erdemović
Essay: Criminal Law
Introduction: Defences are raised to excuse and justify criminal conduct, and if accepted by courts, they mitigate the sentence or acquit the defendant[...

R v Graham - 1982
Case Summaries
Introduction: Paul Graham had been drinking and taking drugs when he and his homosexual partner killed Graham’s wife. Graham claimed he was under duress as his......

R v Cole - 1994
Case Summaries
Introduction: The appellant (C) was convicted of two robberies. He claimed the defence of duress on the basis that he was “desperate” for money as he owed money......

R v Hasan [2005] 2 AC 467
Case Summaries
Introduction: Hasan was charged with the crime of aggravated burglary. He was associated with a gang and relied on the defence of duress......

Concept of Duress in Contract Law
Essay: Contract Law
Introduction: Duress has been described as ‘the pressure of a big stick or the bottom line’. It is invoked by a party who claims that he was forced into ......

Elements of Duress, Necessity and Provocation
Essay: Criminal Law
Introduction: What are the elements of Duress, Necessity and Provocation, how are these differentiated in practice? Suggest ways in which the law may be made coherent....

DPP v A - 2000
Case Summaries
Introduction: The defendant wished to raise the defence of duress to a charge of robbery on the basis that two strangers had threatened to kill......

Defence of Duress Overview
Law Dissertation Examples
Introduction: It is well recognised that a defendant may be excused if he has committed a crime (except murder, attempted murder or treason) because he was threatened......

Reform of Duress and Necessity
Essay: Contract Law
Introduction: 'Summarise the provisions and recommendations of the Law Reform Commission in reform of the pleas of duress and necessity' The Law Reform ......

Duress Makes a Contract Voidable
Essay: Contract Law
Introduction: Duress is a means by which a person or party can be released from a contract, where that person or party has been forced or coerced ......

Democracy and Judicial Review Discussion
Essay: Constitutional Law
Introduction: The following essay will discuss the different forms of democracy, explore theories of judicial review and look at cases which address the question...

Wheeler v Office of the Prime Minister - 2008
Case Summaries
Introduction: The claimant (W) applied for permission to seek judicial review of the decision of the Office of the Prime Minister and Secretary of State for Foreign......

Illegality and Procedural Impropriety in Judicial Review
Essay: Constitutional Law
Introduction: This assignment will consider the concept of ultra- vires in relation to illegality and procedural impropriety in the arena of judicial review ......

Proportionality as a Ground of Judicial Review
Essay: Constitutional Law
Introduction: Proportionality is one of the most important grounds for judicial review. It has been a ground for many years and has evolved from the concept ......

Protecting Citizens Rights in the Caribbean
Essay: Constitutional Law
Introduction: Judicial review is an effective tool in the protection of citizens’ rights. Judicial review may be defined ......

The Citizen and the State
Essay: Civil Law
Introduction: The area of law this question is concerned with is ‘judicial review’. Judicial review is defined as the sovereign means by which the high court in this country exercises supervision over the performance...

What is Judicial Review?
Essay: Constitutional Law
Introduction: Judicial review is the process by which the superior court exercises its supervisory jurisdiction over the proceedings and decisions of inferior ......

Judicial Review Giving Power to the Courts
Essay: Administrative Law
Introduction: Judicial Review is a great weapon in the hands of judges, it gives power to the courts to review statutes and governmental actions to determine ......

What is a Judicial Review?
Essay: Administrative Law
Introduction: Judicial review is that power the court has to review and even nullify, if need be, those laws and acts by the government that are deemed ......

Action Based on Judicial Review
Essay: Judicial Law
Introduction: Judicial review can also be expressed as a challenge to the public body in ways judgements are reached, as (Taylor, 2008) comments that ‘Judicial review allows the individual to directly challenge at least some...

Contract Law - Construction
Contract Law Lectures
Introduction: This construction module is split into two modules - exclusion clauses, and contract terms...

Exclusion Clauses Lecture
Contract Law Lectures
Introduction: During this module guide we have already referred to a number of exemption clauses. An exemption clause in a contract is a term which either limits......

Terms of a Contract Lecture
Contract Law Lectures
Introduction: The first point to address is in relation to statements made at the pre-contractual stage, which are not in the written contract....

Contract Law - Discharge of Obligations
Contract Law Lectures
Introduction: The discharge of obligations module is split into two chapters - agreement, and frustration....

Agreement, Performance and Breach Lecture
Contract Law Lectures
Introduction: A discharge of obligations means that parties to the contract are no longer liable for any terms of the agreement, and no further promises may be......

Frustration Lecture
Contract Law Lectures
Introduction: The doctrine of frustration discharges both parties from their contractual obligations where following the formation of the contract, performance of the......

Formation of The Contract
Contract Law Lectures
Introduction: The formation of the contract is where the contractual journey begins; if no contract is formed, neither of the parties can be under......

Acceptance Lecture
Contract Law Lectures
Introduction: The purpose of this chapter is to grasp the concept of acceptance, which is in simple terms the acceptance of the offer......

Certainty Lecture
Contract Law Lectures
Introduction: Once there is valid offer and acceptance, an agreement is formed. The next requirement for such an agreement to be enforceable as a legally...

Consideration & Promissory Estoppel Lecture
Contract Law Lectures
Introduction: This chapter will examine and analyse two principles of contract law. The first is consideration, which along with the offer, acceptance......

Formation of Contract - Offer Lecture
Contract Law Lectures
Introduction: The first requirement of a legally binding agreement is that there is an offer. One party is the offeror, who presents the offer......

Privity of Contract Lecture
Contract Law Lectures
Introduction: Commercial transactions of the modern times are no longer confined to individuals or simple sale-purchase deals. With the multiplicity of parties......

Contract Law - Remedies
Contract Law Lectures
Introduction: The contract law remedies module is split into two chapters - damages, and other remedies....

Damages Lecture
Contract Law Lectures
Introduction: There are a number of different remedies under English law. The next chapter will cover all of these, but this chapter will focus solely on the most......

Other Remedies Lecture
Contract Law Lectures
Introduction: In the previous chapter we examined the remedy of damages. Damages place an obligation on the defendant to pay damages instead of performing......

Contract Law - Vitiating Factors
Contract Law Lectures
Introduction: The contract law vitiating factors module is split into 4 chapters: misrepresentation, mistake, duress & illegality....

Duress and Undue Influence Lecture
Contract Law Lectures
Introduction: This chapter will examine the doctrines of duress and undue influence. These doctrines both provide a means for an individual to avoid an already......

Illegality Lecture
Contract Law Lectures
Introduction: The last of the vitiating factors of contracts we will cover is illegality. This chapter will first explore the two different types of illegality......

Misrepresentation Lecture
Contract Law Lectures
Introduction: A misrepresentation is a false statement of fact made that has the result of inducing the other party to enter a contract. If a misrepresentation......

Mistake Lecture
Contract Law Lectures
Introduction: The second of the vitiating factors of a contract we will be exploring is Mistake. The law of mistake refers to where both parties have entered......

Criminal Law - Committing an Offence
Criminal Law Lectures
Introduction: The criminal law committing an offence module is split into two chapters: actus reus, and mens rea....

Actus Reus Lecture
Criminal Law Lectures
Introduction: In order for an individual to be found liable for any offence, three elements must be satisfied. There must be guilty conduct by the defendant....

Mens Rea Lecture
Criminal Law Lectures
Introduction: For the vast majority of offences, mens rea will be satisfied if the defendant can be shown to have intended their actions......

Criminal Law - Denials and Defences
Criminal Law Lectures
Introduction: The criminal law denials and defences module is split into two chapters: insanty, automatism and intoxication, and duress & neccessity....

Duress and Necessity Lecture
Criminal Law Lectures
Introduction: Duress applies as a defence where a person commits a crime as a response to a threat of death or serious injury either to themselves......

Insanity, Automatism and Intoxication Lecture
Criminal Law Lectures
Introduction: Where the defendant is charged with a crime there are several ways he can go about attempting to exonerate himself of legal responsibility......

Criminal Law - Fatal Offences
Criminal Law Lectures
Introduction: The criminal law fatal offences module is split into two chapters: murder and manslaughter....

Manslaughter Lecture
Criminal Law Lectures
Introduction: Both murder and manslaughter are fatal offences against the person, known as homicide offences, and carry the same actus reus....

Murder Lecture
Criminal Law Lectures
Introduction: The definition of murder, although adapted to be relevant in a modern context, remains as that set out by Sir Edward Coke....

Fraud Lecture
Criminal Law Lectures
Introduction: The law regarding fraud was reformed through the enactment of the Fraud Act 2006, which came into law on 15th January 2007....

General Inchoate Offences Lecture
Criminal Law Lectures
Introduction: There are often instances where despite the intentions of a defendant, their desire to commit their intended crime is not sufficient......

Criminal Law - Non-fatal Offences
Criminal Law Lectures
Introduction: The criminal law non-fatal offences module is split into two chapters: assault, battery and ABH, and wounding and GBH....

Assault, Battery and Assault Lecture
Criminal Law Lectures
Introduction: Non-fatal offences against the person encompass a range of offences where a person is caused some harm but the harm does not result in death....

Wounding and GBH Lecture
Criminal Law Lectures
Introduction: Grievous bodily harm (GBH) and Wounding are the most serious of the non-fatal offences against the person, charged under s.18 and s.20......

Parties to Crime Lecture
Criminal Law Lectures
Introduction: It is not always just the person that carries out the actus reus of the offence that has been involved......

Property Offences Lecture
Criminal Law Lectures
Introduction: A person is guilty of theft if he dishonestly appropriates property belonging to another with the intention of permanently depriving...

Sexual Offences Lecture
Criminal Law Lectures
Introduction: It almost goes without saying that there are a very large number of sexual offences that could be considered by this chapter...

Land Law - Co-ownership
Land Law Lectures
Introduction: The land law co-ownership module is split into three chapters: joint tenancies, severance, and dispute....

Co-Ownership Disputes Lecture
Land Law Lectures
Introduction: This chapter is a focused discussion of the areas of dispute within co-ownership. This chapter will reprise some of the discussions......

Joint Tenancies v Tenancies In Common
Land Law Lectures
Introduction: This chapter will first discuss joint tenancies, and touch upon the following areas: survivorship, how and why a joint tenancy might be......

Severance Lecture
Land Law Lectures
Introduction: This chapter will first discuss the background of severance insofar as it is a process that changes joint tenancies into tenancies in common....

Land Law - Covenants
Land Law Lectures
Introduction: The land law fatal offences module contains one chapter: Freehold and Restrictive Covenants...

Freehold and Restrictive Covenants Lecture
Land Law Lectures
Introduction: This chapter will focus on covenants. With leasehold covenants, a covenant regulates the use of land in some way....

Land Law - Easements and Profits à Prendre
Land Law Lectures
Introduction: The land law Easements and Profits à Prendre module contains two chapters: creation and acquisition by prescription....

Acquisition by Prescription Lecture
Land Law Lectures
Introduction: On the matter of prescription< - which is the idea of attaining rights of easement or profit à prendre by a sustained period......

Creation of Easements Lecture
Land Law Lectures
Introduction: Before we examine both of these sections, we shall first give brief definitions of the concepts of easements and profits ......

Land Law - Leases, Licences and Proprietary Estoppel
Land Law Lectures
Introduction: The land law leases and licences module contains two chapters: leases and, licences & proprietary estoppel...

Leases Lecture
Land Law Lectures
Introduction: Many of the questions you will be dealing with in land law questions will relate to leaseholds rather than freeholds. By and large, the......

Licences and Proprietary Estoppel Lecture
Land Law Lectures
Introduction: Licences are certainly the lowest-ranking category of property rights. There are four kinds of licences which exist in English law......

Land Law - Mortgages
Land Law Lectures
Introduction: The land law mortgages module contains one chapter: Creation of a Mortgage...

Creating a Mortgage Lecture
Land Law Lectures
Introduction: The focus of this chapter will be on the creation of a mortgage. A mortgage is something you will have heard about before......

Land Law - Registered Land
Land Law Lectures
Introduction: The land law registered land module contains one chapter: Minor Interests and Overriding Interests...

Minor Interests and Overriding Interests lecture
Land Law Lectures
Introduction: All registered dispositions of a registered estate must take effect subject to those unregistered interests which are said by the Land Registration Act......

Land Law - The Basics
Land Law Lectures
Introduction: The land law basics module contains one chapter: Fixtures and Chattels...

Fixtures and Chattels Lecture
Land Law Lectures
Introduction: As aforementioned, it is important to establish what on land, constitutes a fixture and a chattel. Fixtures are those goods which belong as part......

Land Law - Trusts of Land
Land Law Lectures
Introduction: The land law trusts of land module contains two chapters: express and implied trusts, and trustees in land....

Express and Implied Trusts Lecture
Land Law Lectures
Introduction: Express and Implied Trusts. Express trusts are a device of disposition which, in land, creates a purely nominal ('legal') title......

Trustees in Land Lecture
Land Law Lectures
Introduction: This chapter of the guide on land law deals with trustees of land (alternatively called 'Trustees in land' there is no real......