Tag: International Law

Articles

Implementation of Land Title Registration System in Malaysia
11th Jun 2021
Introduction: In this article, the authors first give an overview of the title registration system under the Malaysian land law. It then examines the implementation experience of title registration system in Malaysia and evaluates what lessons Hong Kong can learn in its future implementation of the title registration system....

The Legal Environment of Business in the US
11th Jun 2021
Introduction: Therefore, there is need to look at the laws and the reason why they were passed. In this case, we will look at the law that regulates businesses in United State of America. The paper outlines various laws that regulate businesses, their intended purpose in the business, and how they affect the business....

The United Nations CISG 1980 Legislation
11th Jun 2021
Introduction: “The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sales of Goods 1980 (CISG)” is an international piece of legislation aimed at harmonising international sales laws, in order to provide for easier cross border transactions....

Arguments for and Against Euthanasia with relation to Switzerland
11th Jun 2021
Introduction: This paper will analyze Switzerland with regards to the issue of euthanasia. It will also offer the diverse viewpoints which relate to euthanasia and develop a supporting view to the most logical argument. Discussed issues will be summarized....

Universalism and Cultural Relativism in Human Rights
11th Jun 2021
Introduction: This essay examines the debate through the contradiction of concepts of Universalism and Cultural Relativism. International law, which actually has started developing with the first states, has been a subject of significant changes especially during the period between Westphalian peace treaty (1648) and World War I....

Preventative Action Principle and Sustainable Principles
11th Jun 2021
Introduction: The main aim of this principle is requiring the prevention of damage to the environment, and to reduce, limit or control the actions which might cause or risk such harm. This aim sometimes called as “principle of preventive action” or “preventive principle”. In the preventive principle a state may be under a responsibility to avoid harm to the environment within its jurisdiction....

The Concept of Self-determination in International Law
11th Jun 2021
Introduction: The concept of self-determination is personified in the Charter of the United Nations and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (hereinafter referred to as ICESCR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (hereinafter referred to as ICCPR)....

Advantages and Disadvantages of the WTO for Developing Nations
11th Jun 2021
Introduction: This essay has analysed the advantages and disadvantages of the WTO for developing nations. This essay firstly, argued that the global economic system is inherently unfair as the economic power of core nations is so great that the periphery will always be exploited unless the system is substantially reorganised....

Does Prison Work? Arguments For and Against Prisons
11th Jun 2021
Introduction: Effectiveness of prisons is a hot debate topic but it’s not easy to say whether prisons are effective or not. Studies have definitely revealed that high incarceration have lead to low crimes in countries like Australia, England, New Zealand and United states but at the same time critics have argued that high incarceration rate have inflicted upon high crime rates in England and United States...

Targeted Killing and International Humanitarian Law
10th Jun 2021
Introduction: Morality aside, targeted killings invoke a varied response from the international community in terms of its lawfulness. “Some consider targeted killing as extra-judicial executions or assassinations.” While others see targeted killing as “legitimate acts of war carried out as part of the state’s inherent right to self-defense...

Analysis of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)
10th Jun 2021
Introduction: The aim of this essay is to analyse whether or not the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) does have any relevance in regard to regional human right treaties. It is fundamental to understand the components which may affect the continuing relevance of the UDHR and whether these components have an impact on regional human rights treaties....

Impact of Cryptocurrency on International Trade Law
10th Jun 2021
Introduction: Present laws cannot be applicable in case of cryptocurrency as they have been developed by keeping the flat currency in consideration and this is the reason that international trade laws need to amend and recognize the cryptocurrencies in order to remove all the possible confusions....

Money Laundering (ML) Essay
10th Jun 2021
Introduction: All of the above-mentioned conventions, legislations, and acts have either identified gaps or introduced robust guidance regularly over the years, making it a requirement to reasonably identify and report an offence of Money Laundering (ML). ML is a process to disguise illegally obtained money from its criminal origins...

Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC)
9th Jun 2021
Introduction: Free, prior and informed consent (FPIC) is a legal right granted to indigenous peoples. This right is gleaned from the fundamental human right of self-determination which allows peoples to freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social, and cultural development....

The Internationalization of Human Rights Law
9th Jun 2021
Introduction: The debate on a result of the internationalization of Human Rights Law has been very controversial in my LL.M. Programme (LLM in International Human Rights Law and Practice). Therefore, this essay will explore legal concepts such as (Legal transplant and convergence) learned from this module, seeking to understand in relation to the ‘Internationalization of law’ under different legal systems...

Structure of Human Rights Act
18th Mar 2021
Introduction: The Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) is an outstanding pieces of legislation in the last decade and therefore needs no further introduction. It always ......

Constitutional Implications on Human Rights
18th Mar 2021
Introduction: Constitutional Implications on Human Rights.Taking as example at least two of the Articles of the European Convention on Human Rights,(now incorporated into domestic law following the Human Rights Act 1998), explain the constitutional implications, with particular reference to the role of the judiciary....

Human Rights Act Responsibilities and Freedoms
9th Feb 2021
Introduction: The Human Rights Act 1998… has transformed our system of law into one of positive rights, responsibilities and freedoms, where before we had only the freedom to do what was not prohibited...

Regional Human Rights Mechanisms
7th Jan 2021
Introduction: This essay will explain the functioning and effectiveness of regional systems and analyse whether they are more effective than universal systems....

Preservation of the Environment
7th Jan 2021
Introduction: The protection and preservation of the environment is one of the most important issues facing humankind today. The centrality of this issue was demonstrated when the Nobel Peace Prize for 2007 was awarded to AL Gore and the Inter Governmental Panel on Climate Change for their efforts to build up...

Universalism and Cultural Relativism
7th Jan 2021
Introduction: According to the quote from Perry, we may see the view of universalism of human rights, since he said every human being is sacred....

Human Rights Obligations of Corporations
7th Jan 2021
Introduction: Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of free......

Role of Culture, Tradition, Religion
7th Jan 2021
Introduction: The dilemma which arises in the concept of the role of culture, tradition, religion in universality of human rights have been a major concern right from day one, as the meaning of universality of human rights and the principles...

Overview of the Doctrine of Self Defence
6th Jan 2021
Introduction: On September 11, 2001, the United States was attacked. Hijackers turned passenger planes into missiles and used them to destroy the World Trade ......

Self-defense
6th Jan 2021
Introduction: Since the Geneva Convention in 1949, the world has developed its technologies considerably, and the scope of the right of a nation to use force as an act of 'self-defense' is expanding (Antonopoulos, 2008)....

Kaitamaki v R
4th Jan 2021
Introduction: The defendant was convicted of breaking into the victim’s flat and raping her twice. There was no dispute that sexual intercourse had taken place on two......

Greig v Insole - 1978
30th Dec 2020
Introduction: A private sports promoter entered into contracts with leading cricketers for a series of test matches. The international cricketing governing body (ICC)......

Right to Environment of Human Right
11th Dec 2020
Introduction: Of late the worldwide society has amplified its alertness on the relationship between environmental dilapidation and human rights abuses.Exercise and enjoyment of Human Rights by all the people is necessary for full development as human beings....

Torture and Human Rights
1st Dec 2020
Introduction: Torture and Human Rights. Torture is an abominable act, a disregard and disrespect to the dignity of a person and violation of one's human rights. Usually, it is defined and described together with....

Comparative Criminal Justice Goes Global
9th Nov 2020
Introduction: In inviting readers to share his ‘ world view' of criminal procedure, Richard Vogler has contributed another confident critical voice to the rising chorus of scholars expressing dissatisfactions......

The Age of Criminal Responsibility
9th Nov 2020
Introduction: The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) professes that anyone under the age of eighteen is a child....

Importance of New PRC Tort Liability Law
4th Nov 2020
Introduction: In December 26, 2009 the 12th session of the Standing Committee of the Eleventh National People’s Congress has adopted the final draft of the Tort Liability Law...

In Order to Convict a Company
3rd Nov 2020
Introduction: a) Crimes comprise of two basic elements: the guilty act (actus reus) and a guilty mind (Mens rea). Actus reus refers to the physical elements ......

History of Natural Law and Human Rights
1st Jun 2020
Introduction: The classical Natural Law and more modern liberal and individualistic Natural Rights are historically connected and express moral ideas rather than enforceable legal standards....

Law Degree Coursework Help
5th May 2020
Introduction: Degree Level Coursework. As coursework is usually marked anonymously you must make sure that your name does not appear on the title page......

Final Law Essay Evaluation
5th May 2020
Introduction: Final Essay Evaluation. Initially this will be to check your spelling and grammar, but you must also consider carefully the most common mistakes......

Acquisition and Formation of States
18th Nov 2019
Introduction: The acquisition and formation of states is a very important topic in international law, as states are generally considered as the main subject in the international legal system....

Declaratory and Constitutive Theories of State
18th Nov 2019
Introduction: Introduction In international law, the two most common schools of thought for the creation of statehood are the constitutive and declaratory theories of state creation. The constitutive theory was the standard nineteenth-century model of statehood,...

Statehood and Consent
18th Nov 2019
Introduction: Within the complex and developing world of international law, the view that statehood and consent remain at the heart of international law has faced greater scrutiny....

Jurisprudence Dissertation Topic Examples
3rd Oct 2019
Introduction: This page contains a selection of dissertation topics and ideas on jurisprudence. Feel free to use these topics to help you create your own......

International Law Dissertation Topics
3rd Oct 2019
Introduction: We have collated for you a selection of 12 dissertation topics and ideas on European law, international and private international law. You are welcome to use these topics to help you create your own law dissertation topics......

Constitutional Law Dissertation Topics
3rd Oct 2019
Introduction: This page contains a selection of 6dissertation topics and ideas on public, administrative and constitutional law for you. Please use these topics to help you create your own masterpiece......

Criminal Law Dissertation Topics
3rd Oct 2019
Introduction: Here you will find a selection of 12 dissertation topics and ideas on criminal and evidence law. We have provided these topics to help you......

Family Law Dissertation Topics
3rd Oct 2019
Introduction: This page contains a selection of dissertation topics and ideas on family law. Please feel free to use these topics......

Tort Law Dissertation Topics
3rd Oct 2019
Introduction: This law area has 12 dissertation topics and ideas on tort, intellectual property and media law. Please use this material to help you in your law studies and to help craft your very own dissertation topic....

Same Sex Marriage on Family Values
20th Aug 2019
Introduction: The institution of marriage exists many centuries, but varies from year to year. However these changes do not occur as quickly as they used to......

International Refugee Law
16th Aug 2019
Introduction: The problems of mass exodus of refugees and their influx into a nation have put international refugee law at a crossroads time and again....

Behrami and Ruzhdi Saramati vs France, Germany and Norway
16th Aug 2019
Introduction: Behrami and Ruzhdi Saramati vs France, Germany and Norway The claimants Agim Behrami and his son Bekir Behrami were living in Kosovo (now it is the Republic of Serbia) had filed the application on behalf of another son Gadaf Behrami who is now......

What Is the Purpose of the CISG?
16th Aug 2019
Introduction: ‘The CISG is an excellent example of how international laws on a particular topic can be harmonised. The CISG’s existence means national laws ......

Definition of Marriage
16th Aug 2019
Introduction: The classic legal definition of marriage can be found in Hyde v Hyde and Woodmansee, where Lord Penzance defined marriage as the ‘voluntary union......

Permanent Establishment
16th Aug 2019
Introduction: To determine the position of (i) Gullit BV in this country and (ii) Houllier Sarl in the Netherlands and this country is arguably founded upon the concept of permanent establishment that is fundamental to international...

The World Trade Organization A Success Story
16th Aug 2019
Introduction: The World Trade Organization has been a great example of the way collective responsibility works. It has lived up to its expectations of making ......

Property Possession Restitution
16th Aug 2019
Introduction: Property Possession Restitution. The law of restitution means the return of property to the owner or person entitled to possession. If one person has been unjustifiably received either property or money from another, he has an obligation to restore it to the rightful owner in order that he should not be unjustly enriched....

Liability to Tax on Income
16th Aug 2019
Introduction: Any analysis of liability to tax on income of taxpayers living and working abroad, particularly those engaged in a trading venture, is inevitably complex....

Various Types of Peace Support Operations
16th Aug 2019
Introduction: Peace support operations or peacekeeping operations as many calls it, is “[…] among a range of activities undertaken by the United Nations ......

Provisions of the Labour Laws in Oman
16th Aug 2019
Introduction: Oman Labour Law issued in accordance with the Sultans Approval. Ministry of Manpower is one of the main important thin which influence the Labour ......

English Law of Defamation
15th Aug 2019
Introduction: English law of defamation. The English law of defamation recognizes reputation as an interest worthy of protection. Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)...

The Importance of Trade Unions
14th Aug 2019
Introduction: The origins of unions’ existence can be traced back to the 18th century, when the rapid expansion of industrial society attracted women, children and immigrants to the work force in large numbers. The pool of unskilled and......

An Analysis of International Copyright Legislation
14th Aug 2019
Introduction: 'Where works are available only in digital form, the exceptions to and limitations upon copyright protection envisaged by most of the international copyright treaties are almost entirely neutralised'...

Rights of Workers and Labor: Employee Unions, Demands
14th Aug 2019
Introduction: Cambodia had been impacted by the cold war for almost three decades in its history, and the most miserable event known as genocide on its people during the Khmer Rouge Regime made this nation complete destruction.......

Trade Unions and Collective Bargaining
14th Aug 2019
Introduction: The origins of unions’ existence can be traced back to the 18th century, when the rapid expansion of industrial society attracted women......

Labour Law and Right to Strike
14th Aug 2019
Introduction: Right to strike has been an intricate aspect of Labor laws. “Its origin can be traced back to the epoch of socialism. It was during this time ......

Whether the Postal Rule is Redundant
14th Aug 2019
Introduction: In order for a contract to be established, it is important that an offer is made and the acceptance of the offer is communicated to the offeror ......

Concept of Legitimate Expectation
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: This paper examines the origins and rationale of the concept of legitimate expectation. The doctrine of legitimate expectation and the limit ......

Company Law 2006 Companies Act
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: A trading company has implied power to borrow, however, whether express or implied, it carries implications by law a power to give a security for the loan...

A Comparison of Consideration Cases
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: From orthodox view, the performance of an existing duty should not constitute consideration. A performance of an existing duty is a responsibility ......

Need For National Company Law Tribunal
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: The Companies Second Amendment Bill (2002) has been passed by both the houses of parliament and has also received assent form the President ......

Outmoded or Even Redundant
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: To determine the relevance of consideration, we first need to understand the definition of consideration....

Upazilla System as a Local Government Body
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: The Upazilla System is the second tire of the local Govt. of Bangladesh. This system is the successor of the previous sub-division which was ......

A Hierarchy of Rights Protection
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: Human rights are all rights enshrine in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) - classified into two grand categories of civil-political ......

Issue of Passing Off and Trade Mark
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: TASK ONE Luscious Love Television (LLTV), an adults only satellite channel, broadcasts a talent show at midnight every Saturday and Sunday ......

Corporate Personality
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: The legal use of the word ‘person’ has attracted an assortment of theories which is probably second to none in volume. ‘Person’ in law, is both the recognition of an entity as well as the acknowledgement of such an entity’s...

The Violation of Civil and Political Rights
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: In this paper I will discuss the question reffering to the State’s role in violations of civil and political rights. How does the State relate ......

Intoxication of the Complainant
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: The situation where there is no capacity to consent because of self-induced intoxication of the complainant...

The International Labour Organisation
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: The International Labour Organisation (ILO) is the United Nations (UN) body that sets internationally recognised labour standards to protect the rights of workers globally....

Memorandum of Understanding
12th Aug 2019
Introduction: A Memorandum of understanding (MOU or MoU) is a document describing a bilateral or multilateral agreement between parties. It expresses a convergence of will between the parties, indicating an intended common line of action....

Shipping and Charter Party Contracts
8th Aug 2019
Introduction: Charles has chartered a vessel to David for a voyage or ocean trip under the conditions of charter party contracts. And under this ......

Privacy is a Fundamental Human Right
8th Aug 2019
Introduction: Privacy is a fundamental human right recognised by the UN and other international and regional treaties. In 1948, the General Assembly of ......

ICC Criminal Law
8th Aug 2019
Introduction: ICC Criminal Law. The ICC has revolutionized international criminal law in many respects, one of which was enhancing the standing platform and participation for victims and witnesses of crimes. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the principal changes in this area introduced by the ICC Statute....

Discharge of Contract and Case Study
8th Aug 2019
Introduction: This assignment consists of two parts. One part of the assignment is about a case study of Arun and Prakash V Beach Hotel....

Analysis of South Koreas Adultery Law
8th Aug 2019
Introduction: The paper will discuss and analyze the fact that despite Korea’s increased modernization and rise in judicial review, the country’s Constitutional Court ......

Criminal Justice System Accommodate Young Offenders
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: In the golden ages it was believed that a child should be seen as a person and not as an object of concern however over time the treatment of children has been more enlightened....

Patent Technology Devices
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: Patent Technology Devices - The patent scheme is designed to protect technology devices, actual machines, and new chemical biotechnological/nano-technological compositions rather than pure concepts...

Contracts for International Sale of Goods
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: In this paper, I will undertake a comparative critical analysis of the rules adopted by the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods [hereinafter referred to as ‘the CISG’]...

Foundations of International Commercial Law
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: The twentieth century saw the resurgence of a truly transnational commercial law and all the indications are that the twenty first century will be the century of a truly global commercial law...

An Enquiry into the Prisoners' Right to Vote
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: Imprisonment must remain as a means to an end and not an end in itself. Punishment should be a means to reform and not to alienate. The object of ......

Cases of International Sale Contracts
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: Within the context of the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, explain with relevant case examples: UN Convention Law of......

The Effect of Business Laws
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: In the current world business are playing an important role in every aspect of life. Standard of living, one’s life style......

Numerous Contractual and Commercial Issues
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: In construction there will be numerous contractual and commercial issues to be resolved between the parties intending to contract prior to signing of the contract coupled with pressure to commence the works as soon as possible...

Development of the Disclosure of Evidence
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: The development of the disclosure of evidence in criminal proceedings both on the national and international level in the 20th century ......

The Six Principles in Insurance
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: Property may be defined as anything which has a value assigned to it, both tangible and intangible. However intangible property such as copyright a......

Impact of Globalisation
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: The world economic situation has long changed and we are living in the era of globalisation, free market economies and multinational corporations. The new changed economic, political and social scenarios have ushered in with them high levels of development...

Are International Rules on State Responsibility Justified?
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: If a Head of a State or a person who is by the command of the Head of the State commits a crime or a breach of International Law, then the actions of individual are attributed to the State. These acts are international delinquency. ...

Is the Definition of a Refugee Outdated?
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: The definition contained in the Convention, with its limitations and alternatives, was the result of a political bargain. At the point when the drafters of the Convention characterised "'refugee," they intentionally endeavoured to create an item prone to be acknowledged by numerous Governments....

Individual Responsibility in War Crimes
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: Outline and discuss the notion of individual criminal responsibility for war crimes in the light of the Statute of the International Criminal Court....

Was the WTO an Improvement Over Gatt?
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: “The World Trade Organisation (WTO) is the only international body dealing with the rules of trade between nations and its importance ......

Public Interest and Immunity
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: Public Interest And Immunity. In this paper, the justifications for the existence of public interest immunity will be examined. In particular, the author will analyse the interests that this form of immunity seeks...

Assessing Factors of National Security
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: National security is the necessity to maintain the endurance of the state through the use of political power, the exercise of diplomacy, economic ......

The Importance of a Ship's Flag
7th Aug 2019
Introduction: Introduction In the maritime law, there are some cases happened for the conflict in the ships. The justification is based ......

International Legal Sovereign
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: International law and globalization. Academic discourse examining the legal subject in the international community has traditionally endorsed the concept of state sovereignty. States, which held exclusive rights and obligations, were consequently see......

Human Rights Act and Deportation
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: The World Health Organization (WHO) defined the scale of global migration, as ‘the movement of people from one area to another for varying ......

Transnational Organised Crime
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: The Transnational Organised Crime Convention is a multi-lateral convention established by the United Nations in December 2000 with the expressed aim of ......

Legal Aspects of Oil and Gas Contracts
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: 1.0 Part 1 – Production Sharing Contracts and Licensing Systems 1.1 Introduction 1.1 There are several contractual concepts used around ......

Globalization and its Impacts on HR
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: In this report of HR practices in Southeast Bank Ltd in Bangladesh we will explore the impact of HR practices in different dimensions....

The Sources of Human Rights
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: The European Convention of Human Rights of 1950 which was adopted in 1953 is a Council of Europe Treaty under which member states of the same ......

Method of Regulation in Professional Sport
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: One of the most documented incidents at the height of covert cheating was named 'Bloodgate'.[3] In the Heineken Cup quarter-final, April 2009...

Three Elements in a Contract of Transaction
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: Abstract Contract Law was chosen to be an suggestion of two connected notions that the rules of contract law could be constructively for the ......

The Need for a Lex Arbitri
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: Arbitration refers to the settlement of a dispute between two or more persons after hearing the parties in a quasi-judicial manner by persons ......

International Sale of Goods
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: The issue to be determined in this assignment is the merits of the claims that Santes or Xis may bring against one another under the sales ......

Role of International Commercial Arbitration
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: International commercial arbitration refers to the process of solving international commercial disputes among parties from different countries ......

Law Governing the Arbitration Proceedings
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: The past few decades have witnessed an unprecedented growth of international trade and commerce which has generated the need for more efficient......

CISG and Sales of Good Act
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: Critically compare and contrast the CISG with the domestic Sales of Good Act. Should the UK adopt the CISG? Introduction Trade between companies ......

International Criminal Court
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: The International Criminal Court (ICC) is a permanent and independent body, based in Hague, Netherlands. The statute governing the Court is known as the Rome Statute, entered into force on July 1, 2002....

Pari Passu in International Finance
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: The pari passu clause is a covenant or a warranty that bank loans and bonds rank pari passu amid all the other unsecured debt of the borrower or issuer....

Pari Passu Clause and Negative Pledge
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: The primary purpose of this thesis is to analyze the pari passu (PPC) clause and negative pledge (NCP) clause. In doing so, the focus will ......

Company Secretary in Good Corporate Governance
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: Corporations, whether by family firms or state enterprises, work within boundaries set by law, by regulations, by those who own and fund them and by the expectations of those they serve. The nature of these boundaries varies from country to country and undergoes crucial changes through time. That is why there can be no single ......

Arbitration
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: The world has come to experience many changes in the way legal systems are evolving....

Status of the GATT Enabling Clause
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: EC--Trade Preferences - case, is a case that is closely related to the GATT Enabling Clause , this cases dispute focal point is shown in the ......

Role of Business Ethics in Society
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: BUSINESS LAWS AND BUSINESS ETHICS Abstract: the economy of a country or state is dependent of business, trade, industries and products. Business ......

Assignment on Law of International Trade
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: Analyse and explain the functioning of Art 5 (1) of Council Regulation 44/2001 on the Jurisdiction and the Recognition and Enforcement in Civil and......

Intellectual Property Dissertation
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: Trying to define the essence of intellectual property is difficult. Most definitions, in fact, simply list examples of intellectual property rights......

Victim-centred Transitional Justice
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: Transitional justice aims to address issues arising from violations committed during conflict or political violence....

Enforcement of International Arbitrary Awards
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: While arbitration can resolve various kinds of disputes it hardly can be more important to any other form dispute resolution other than commercial dispute resolution; especially in a further globalised world...

Uncitral Model Law on Cross Border Insolvency
6th Aug 2019
Introduction: Most trading nations have developed their insolvency laws for different reasons and based on different policies due to which the countries have dif......

International Commercial Arbitration
2nd Aug 2019
Introduction: International commercial arbitration is a way of solving disputes which the parties choose themselves, it is private, it is effective and, in most parts of the world, it is now the generally accepted method of solving international business dispute...

Sales of Good Act and UN Convention
2nd Aug 2019
Introduction: This essay looks at the interaction of the UK Sales of Good Act 1979 and the UN Convention on the International Sales of Goods concluded ,......

Trans Border Data Flow
2nd Aug 2019
Introduction: CONTENTS. 0. Introduction. 1. Defining Trans-border Data Flow/Personal Information. 0. Concerns for Trans-border Data Flow Under ......

UK Commercial Law and International Trade
2nd Aug 2019
Introduction: Through the course of this essay it will be shown that the above statement can be partially supported and disagreed with. On the one hand ......

Jurisdiction in the Cyberspace
2nd Aug 2019
Introduction: 'There was no more a Law of Cyberspace than there was a Law of the Horse' Judge Frank Easterbrook In the present Internet World the e-commerce ......

Depriving Disabled People of their Rights
2nd Aug 2019
Introduction: In many countries, people with disability are deprived of their rights, liberties and they are usually excluded from the society. People ......

Role of Ombudsman In Administration
2nd Aug 2019
Introduction: The Ombudsman can bring the lamp of scrutiny to otherwise dark places even over the resistance of those who would draw the blinds....

Buyer Remedies of a Contract
2nd Aug 2019
Introduction: The general rules of a contract required from either the seller or the buyer is to comply with their obligations. Therefore, the seller ......

What is Arbitration?
2nd Aug 2019
Introduction: Arbitration is 'a legal technique for the resolution of disputes outside the courts, wherein the parties to a dispute refer it to one or more ......

Choice of Law in Contract
2nd Aug 2019
Introduction: The choice of law in contract has emerged from three main factors the first factor is the place where contract is made, the performance ......

The Early History of Money Laundering
2nd Aug 2019
Introduction: Money laundering is not the oldest crime in the book but it’s certainly close. Historian Sterling Seagrave has written that more than ......

The ICC Uniform
2nd Aug 2019
Introduction: The ICC Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits 2007 Revision (UCP) is implemented on July 1, 2007....

Agents Play a Vital Role
2nd Aug 2019
Introduction: The Use Of Agents Is Probably Indispensable To Commercial Transactions, But The Established Principles Of Agency Are Littered With Pitfalls For The Unwary Principal. Critically Evaluate This Assertion....

The Arbitral Tribunal and their Powers
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: I will hereby write a report to advise the arbitral tribunal of their powers regarding this case. The clause mentions the word ‘arbitration ......

A Hierarchy of Rights Protection
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: Human rights are all rights enshrine in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) - classified into two grand categories ......

Disqualification of Arbitrators
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: What are the tests applied by the English Courts for the disqualification of arbitrators for lack of independence and impartiality? Compare with other legal systems and assess whether these are in harmony...

Essential Principles of Letter of Credit
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: 4.1.1. Principle of Strict Compliance The letter of credit is a specified documentation particularly required to enjoy the facility of credit ......

The Concept of Nationality is Important
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: The concept of nationality is important since it determines the benefits to which person may be entitled and the obligation such as conscription which they must perform. The problem is that there is no coherent accepted definition of nationality in international law and only confliction description...

Human Rights are Rights Inherent
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, language, or any other status...

The Two UN Covenants on Human Rights
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: INTRODUCTION Universal Declaration of Human Rights(UDHR) was adopted on 10th of December 1948 by General Assembly resolution 217(III).it includes ......

The Traditional Forms of Peacekeeping
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: Conflicts seem to occur anywhere and anytime, at both regional and inter-state levels. Whenever these issues are not resolved suitably, they tend ......

The Legitimacy of PPM Based Trade Measures
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: TOPIC From US- Tuna to US-Shrimp One of the most unsettling questions that the international community has been faced with in the last ......

Carriage of Goods by Sea and Provisions
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: The Rotterdam Rules are officially called, ‘The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea. Over the past decades, carriage of goods......

Modern Day Piracy Faced in Somalia
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: When speaking about pirates people often envision scenic Caribbean vistas of a bygone era, but today piracy has experienced a renaissance ......

Joint Petroleum Development Area
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: Is Unitization A Total Solution To The Issue Of Common Petroleum Deposit In A Joint Petroleum Development Area? Nigeria-Sao Tome And Principe; And Australia-East Timor Leste, As Case Studies...

What is Force Majeure?
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: The most practical expectation that any commercial entity would expect in entering into any contractual agreement is legal certainty....

Competence Justifications on Principle
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: The Arbitration and Conciliation Act of 1996 [hereinafter the Act] lauds in its preamble the contribution of the Model Law on International ......

Carriage of Goods Internationally
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: Ontario Company is a multinational corporation organized under the laws of Ontario, Canada, with its principal place of business in Toronto, ......

What Is the Theory of Consent?
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: INTRODUCTION The chief exponent of the theory of consent was Bynkershoek, which was later followed by more refinements by other jurists such ......

International Bill of Human Rights
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: The International Bill of Human Rights is an informal name given to two international treaties and one General Assembly resolution established by the United Nations....

The Practices Regulating the Use of Force
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: Introduction Bloodshed is as endemic to man as any other instinct. It is not surprising therefore, that the long history of man is filled with ......

Cases of the Serbian Loans
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: Where there is a conflict between international obligations and national law, the international rule prevails. Under UN General Assembly 1949 and......

Impact of WTO on Globalization Trade Policy
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: World Trade Organization (WTO), found in 1995 and headquarters is in Geneva, has its clearly main purposes since its beginning that to promote ......

Portugal vs Australia
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: Portugal administered East Timor as a non-self-governing territory under United Nations Chapter XI. On 27th August 1975...

United Nations Peacekeeping Role in Rwanda
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: Rwanda is the most shameful example of recent failure by the international community (House of Commons, 1998/99: v). Under the peacekeeping ......

WTO the Successor of GATT
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: The World Trade Organization (WTO), the successor of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), was formed in January 1995. It comprises of ......

Case for Reforming Security Councils
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: The United Nations Security Council (henceforth SC) is the executive arm of the United Nations (UN). Its role is to maintain peace and security ......

Violation of Human Rights
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: Diplomacy is defined as the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of groups or states. Diplomatic personnel of various kinds perform their functions in receiving as well as in sending states....

International Law
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: Businesses increasingly turn to binding arbitration(1) as a mechanism for dispute resolution....

The Elements of State Responsibility
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: The paper seeks to throw light on the concept of state responsibility under public international law. It deals with the elements of state ......

What is the Concept of Statelessness
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: INTRODUCTION The Universal Declaration of Human Rights clearly states that 'everyone has the right to a nationality' and that ......

IMF and Financial Crisis
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: The International Monetary Fund (IMF) came into formation in July 1944 when representatives of 45 countries met in Bretton Woods...

Nature and the Importance of Jus Cogens Rules
23rd Jul 2019
Introduction: The rules of jus cogens (also known as peremptory norm) are derived from the customary international law, and it is a rule or principle which is so......

The United Nations Human Rights Council
22nd Jul 2019
Introduction: Introduction The core of the United Nations (UN) 2006 policy reform was the establishment of a new human rights body. The United Nations Human .....

Role of GATT in Promoting International Trade
22nd Jul 2019
Introduction: The main role of GATT in the international trade was regulating the contracting parties to achieve the purpose of the agreement which were reducing......

Responsibility for Injury to Aliens?
22nd Jul 2019
Introduction: This article aims to address the following issues regarding the law of state responsibility for injury to aliens. Some of the aspects......

How Powerful is the WTO?
22nd Jul 2019
Introduction: WTO is a major global economic actor and the first organization to come closer to becoming a world economic government. It has been established ......

Decision-making at the WTO
22nd Jul 2019
Introduction: Beetham acknowledges that democratic institutions to a large extent exemplify democratic principles that require practical institutional form for their realisation....

Role of UN in Post Cold War
22nd Jul 2019
Introduction: The United Nations Organization (UN) website starts with an optimistic punch line…United Nations, We the Peoples….A stronger UN for a better ......

International Sale of Goods (CISG) a Success?
22nd Jul 2019
Introduction: International sales law, whether coded or not, is there for a long period of time but lacked unification, standardization and harmonization among......

The Sinking of the Rainbow Warrior
22nd Jul 2019
Introduction: Facts The sinking of the Rainbow Warrior was an operation by the 'action' branch of the French foreign intelligence services, the Direction ......

International Legal Personality
18th Jul 2019
Introduction: An entity which has international legal personality can be a subject of international law and then can be a regular member of international society....

UAE and USA Laws
18th Jul 2019
Introduction: The significance of laws in the modern society today is very paramount. Understanding the meaning of laws also becomes apparent....

Major Problems Faced by APEC Since Formation
18th Jul 2019
Introduction: The world is a global and social one that can bring cooperation among members of the society irrespective their indifferences that range from poli......

Hydropolitics of the Indus Water Treaty
18th Jul 2019
Introduction: There are 261 international rivers in the world and the total surface of around seventy percent of the earth is covered with water ......

The National Treatment Standard
18th Jul 2019
Introduction: In international law, the national treatment standard has been invoked in two different contexts. In one context, the standard represents one of the competing international law doctrines for the treatment of the person and property of aliens which has come...

What is Double Taxation?
18th Jul 2019
Introduction: Double taxation is a situation that affects C corporations when business profits are taxed at both the corporate and personal levels. The ......

The Convention on the Rights of the Child
18th Jul 2019
Introduction: The Convention on the Rights of the Child! According to UNICEF, the Convention on the Rights of the Child is the most successful and universally accepted human rights treaty so far created....

Infliction of Emotional Distress
18th Jul 2019
Introduction: The first thing that may give rise to the tort is an act or omission which results in a wrong on another. Emotional distress caused by an act or omission can be classified as a wrong in some cases....

International Law Essay
18th Jul 2019
Introduction: The internationalisation of state contracts raises some difficult questions relating to both public and private international law. The theory posits that regardless of the choice of the parties to such......

Increasing Popularity of Economic Globalisation
18th Jul 2019
Introduction: Question: In The Light Of Thousands Of Bilateral Investment Treaties, Customary International Law Is Irrelevant For The Legal Protection Of Foreign Investors....

Area of Jurisprudence
18th Jul 2019
Introduction: Legal theorists have a difficult line to tread. Their area of jurisprudence requires an in-depth and intimate study of both the theory and the philosophy of law which, in turn, requires an acute understanding of the way in which the legal system...

A Special Economic Zone
18th Jul 2019
Introduction: A Special Economic Zone is a geographical region that has economic laws that are more liberal than a country’s typical economic laws....

Marital Rape
18th Jul 2019
Introduction: The idea of the sacrosanct; institution of marriage dished out by the mainstream Indian cinema is a myth and is contrary to women perceptions of reality. T...

The India Pakistan Water Dispute
18th Jul 2019
Introduction: Scarcity of water is a huge problem to many countries of the world, especially those which are developing. The effects of environmental ......

Affirmative Action
18th Jul 2019
Introduction: In society, there exist different social groups which are characterized by many features among them race....

Admissibility of Experts in Legal System
18th Jul 2019
Introduction: Experts have their own battle and concept of ideas in the arena of court proceedings. All of them have with familiarity, knowledge, understanding and skills to provide a great attack in the court proceedings (Freckelton, 2005 and Schwartz, 2005)....

Corporal Punishment Physical
18th Jul 2019
Introduction: Corporal Punishment Physical. Corporal punishment has been thought to be a way of the past; however, it is used frequently across America. Thirteen of our states are using the method of physical punishment in our schools today....

General Sources of International Law
18th Jul 2019
Introduction: According to the syllabus (p. 15) the three sources of international law are treaties, customs, and views of learned jurists. Treaties are defined as international agreements entered into by two or more states....

Trading Arms to Terrorist Organizations
18th Jul 2019
Introduction: The issue of trading arms to terrorist organizations is a fairly new topic arising from the past decade of issues with the multitudes of terrorist ......

Legal Issues of the Adolf Eichmann Trial
18th Jul 2019
Introduction: This is a case proposing from Attorney general of Israel to Adolf Eichmann. Eichmann was a German Nazi and a SS-Obersturmbannführer equivalent ......

De Jure and De Facto Status of Refugees
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: The refugee is not a creation of the modern world. Historically, migrations have been forced by various reasons both natural and man-made. With Clearer demarcation of borders...

Investment Banking
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Centuries have passed since ‘Investment Banking’ was first introduced to the world’s financial system....

The Right to Privacy
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: The right to privacy is illusory. Humans do not need a right to privacy to flourish and society is better off without conferring legal protection to privacy...

The Innocent Passage in the UN Convention
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: INTRODUCTION The innocent passage has been codified in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III) was adopted in 1982 , it ......

The ICJ and Peaceful Settlement of Disputes
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Under the United Nations system, conflict management can be broadly categorized into two techniques: diplomatic procedures and adjudication. While ......

LLM International Corporate Law
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Critically Assess The Claim That The Principles Of Separate Corporate Personality And Limited Liability Are So Fundamental To Company Law That The Courts Should Not Haphazardly Lift The Veil To Make The Holding...

What Are the Aims of Humanitarian Aid?
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: PREAMBLE In the world of conflicts involving interest of countries, citizen and civilians, there lays a general understanding and concept ......

The Importance of Incoterms For International Contracts
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: In the last decades, for many companies, a strategic necessity results within the scope of globalization to use broader access to new markets and to take part in international business. Most pursued goals are market protection, cost minimization, capacity utilization and maximization of profit. Hence, world trade gains importance, and those goods are traded in larger numbers and diversities ......

Rights of Persons with Disabilities
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: This article is meant to shed light into the meaning of disability as it is envisaged by the United Nation Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (hereinafter the Convention/UN CRPD)....

Issues of the State Sponsored Terrorism
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Terrorism has progressed further than extremist groupings to incorporate radical states that support or fund terrorist actions as mechanisms ......

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: In 1948 the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). This for the first time formally outlined what human rights were....

Should Justice be Bargained
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: There is no glory in plea bargaining. In place of a noble clash for truth, plea bargaining gives us a skulking truce......

Effectiveness of International Humanitarian Law
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Critically assess the effectiveness of international humanitarian law in protecting the rights of the civilian population in a territory under belligerent occupation....

Domicile
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Domicile is considered to be a connecting factor which links a person with a particular legal system....

Can International Law Be Called True Law?
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Despite the fact that international law is the predominant method for organising an increasingly globalised and complex international community ......

International Sale of Goods
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: In 1980, the final version of the Convention of Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG), also called Vienna Convention, was agreed by United Nations of General Assembly to present a uniform law for international sale of goods....

Is Kosovo Legally Recognised as a State?
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Is Kosovo a State, and, as far as international law is concerned, does it matter whether it is or not? Kosovo is a disputed territory following ......

Introduction to Competition Act
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: The competition act of 2002 was passed by the parliament of India so as to form a commission to oversee the business operations of companies and ......

A Study of the Nuremberg Main Trial
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: In this essay the aptness of the indictments, the matter of jurisdiction and the legality in terms of the fair trial principle will be explored ......

Dilution Under Trademark Law
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Introduction The progressive development of Intellectual Property Law over the last century has seen to an exponential increase in the commercial ......

The Sources of Letter of Credit Law
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: The law of letters of credit has developed mainly through customs. As Kozolchyk explains: “Many of its operative rules, regardless of geography ......

A Key Concern Regarding Child Support
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: A key concern regarding child support is on whom the burden of support for children primarily fall. Ultimately, is the state responsible for the financial support of children (although the state can recover the money from parents)...

The Sources of International Law
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Article 38(1) of the statutes of ICJ provides a reflection of the sources of international law, though not accurate and Article 38 did not expressly mention ‘sources’ but it is usually invoked as sources of international law....

Comparative Study of Policing Models
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Policing is one of the most important of the functions undertaken by the every sovereign government. For the state machinery, police is an ......

The Financial Services Authority
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: No portion of the work referred in this research paper has been submitted in support of an application for another degree or qualification of this or any other university or other institution of learning....

What Is A Tribunal
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: The term tribunals is used as though its meaning is self-evident. In fact, the word has not been used with consistency, and no very precise ......

Separation Between Shareholders and Managers
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: In the modern cooperation, there is principle is separation between shareholders and managers (Burkart et al., 1998,173), an important minority ......

Company is a Legal Person
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Introduction: A company is a legal person, though an artificial one. However, it enjoys as much as the same rights and is subject to as much ......

Health and Environmental Pollution project
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: The concept of interrelatedness, of global citizenship and a shared planet does not apply to only environmental issues but extends to the ......

Practice of International Commissions of Inquiry
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: The objective of international law is the maintenance of peace and goodwill through non-violent means. It is pertinent to note that this rapid stride in the development of international law came only after the devastating Second World War...

Status Problems of the Caspian Sea
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Though the Caspian is called a sea, it is a lake. The Caspian Sea is the largest lake on the Earth. Its area is 371,000 square km. The volume ......

Anti Dumping As a Form of Protectionism
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Dumping can be defined as the act of a manufacturer in one country exporting a product to another country at a price which is either below ......

Assess the Importance of Opinion Juris
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Introduction The aim of International Law is to regulate the behavior between states & international organizations. In a State community ......

State Immunity Gives Protection
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Absolute theory is following by the English and Australian court in the 1970s. The absolute theory applied in the case of The Porto Alexander ......

Mediation of Resolving a Dispute
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Mediation is a better method of solving child contact disputes than by the use of judges in courts. ‘Currently the majority of parents make their......

International Rivers and River Basins
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Political Geography Dr. Eric Ross International rivers and river basins are subjects of international Law which regulates the status of those river......

What is the International Humanitarian Law?
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: International humanitarian law comprises of Geneva Conventions and Hague Conventions .International Humanitarian Law or I.H.L is a linkage between ......

Recognition Important Issues in International Law
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Recognition is one of the most important issues in international Law, change is said to be a permanent thing, and this is also applicable to the international community as a whole....

International Law Trade
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: International Law Trade. In this coursework I have been asked to complete all the questions which relates to the World Trade Organisation (WTO) Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade and also discussing briefly any disputed cases within......

International Court Justice
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: International Court Justice. Unlike the International Court of Justice, arbitration between the states existed for many centuries and numerous examples of arbitration are provided by the history of the ancient Greece. It was also practiced....

Changes to International Law Over Time
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Over years, International Law, instead of being ‘myth making’ without any particular jurisdiction, has evolved into a fascinating branch of law....

The Trail Smelter Case
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: The Trail Smelter Case1 arose in the field of late 1950�s and came up with the issue of International Environmental Law. In this case 'it was damage caused by one State to the environment of the other that triggered the legal claim....

Extradition Procedures
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Extradition procedures are regarded as an essential tool in the fight against transnational crime. Critically evaluate the developments in extradition law following the events of September 11, 2001....

What Are Children's Rights in India?
17th Jul 2019
Introduction: Introduction Children constitute over 400 million of the one billion plus population of India. It has the highest number of children ......

Pioneer Container Case
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: The claimant was a cargo owner who contracted with a carrier to ship the cargo. Per the bills of lading, the claimant granted the carrier authority to......

Ganges Water Dispute India Bangladesh
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: Water is an ever-present resource which is crucial for life, human well-being and economic development as well as vital for peace and security. It ......

Freedom and Choice Together
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: Medical ethics involves applying moral considerations in the decision making process of medical professionals. The medical ethic of autonomy has been fundamental in the regulation of the medical profession......

Human Rights in International Relations
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: For a long time international relations (IR) have been regarded as a playing field for states, where human beings are subordinated to each state ......

Gay Marriage A Moral Issue
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: The issue of civil rights for gays and lesbians, one in particular marriage; although many religious conservatives wish it would, will not go .......

Strengths and Weaknesses of the WTO System
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: At the end of World War II, international institutions were set up to restore the world political balance. The new system of World Trade ......

The Concept of Self Determination
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: The concept of Self Determination has been developed after the end of the Second World War and the idea of self determination was supported by International law and formulated in the Charter of the United Nations Article 1 (2) of the United Nations Charter....

In The Matter of LC (children) - UKSC
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: In LC (Children) No.2, a five member panel of the Supreme Court were asked to pass judgment on the on what is to be taken into account regarding whether a child is habitually resident in a place for the purposes of the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction 1980 and s.1(2) Child Abduction and Custody Act 1985....

Laemthong International v Artis
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: The Laemthong Glory (the respondent) was a vessel chartered on a voyage from Brazil to Yemen, carrying bagged sugar. The charterparty contract provided......

Competition Law and Policy in India
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: World Bank defines competition as ‘a situation in a market in which firms or sellers independently strive for buyers’ patronage in order......

South China Sea Disputes and Resolution
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: The maritime disputes in the South China Sea impact on a series of regional bilateral relations and continue to trouble ties between China and the ......

Should Same-sex Marriage be Legalized?
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: To make a valid argument concerning the legalization of homosexual marriage, one must consider a few important factors.......

Dispute Settlement Under the WTO
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: What is the role and function of dispute settlement under the WTO? By reference to its institutions, procedures and......

What Is the Concept of Non Refoulement
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: Critically examine its contents and scope and whether it has acquired the status of customary law In seeking to evaluate the concept ......

The Relevance of Armed Conflict Conventions
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: TASK In light of developments in customary law, treaty law and challenges posed by contemporary armed conflicts, is the current legal dichotomy ......

Adoption in Hindu Law and Muslim Law
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: The concept of adoption is not a new concept rather the custom and practice of adoption is continuing from the past. The dictionary meaning of the term ‘adoption’ is the act......

A Direct Result of Globalization
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: A direct result of globalization was coming into existence of multi national companies and various international institutions. As a result of greater interaction among these global entities, and the rapid rise in trade that resulted thereof,...

Goldsoll v Goldman
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: The plaintiff and the defendant carried out similar business as dealers of imitation jewellery. The defendant sold his business to the plaintiff......

Dubai Aluminium v Salaam - Case Summary
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: The senior partner of a firm drafted a consultancy agreement and other requisite documentation for a client’s fraudulent enterprise....

Muslims are Governed Largely
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: The instincts and affections of mankind, in the vast majority of instances, WILL lead man to make provisions for those who are nearest to them in kindred and who in life have been the objects of their affections....

Ford Motor Co v Amalgamated Union
16th Jul 2019
Introduction: Ford Motors and trade unions reached collective agreements concerning employment conditions, signed by their representatives....

Legalities of Carriage of Goods by Sea
9th Jul 2019
Introduction: International economic integration and the multiple politics have a deep impact on the law of international transport of goods by sea. The rapid ......

Universal Jurisdiction in International Law
9th Jul 2019
Introduction: The last few decades have witnessed the development of a shared understanding of the fact that there should be no impunity for serious crimes. This has been noted by jurists and writers alike, as one of the key achievements in international law....

IMF and Financial Crisis in Developing Countries
9th Jul 2019
Introduction: The international monetary fund came into formation in july 1944 when representatives of 45 countries met together in the town of bretton woods, new hampshire in north-east of united states...

East Timor
9th Jul 2019
Introduction: Portugal administered East Timor as a non-self-governing territory under United Nation Chapter XI. On 27th August 1975...

Aspects of the Iron Rhine Arbitration Case
9th Jul 2019
Introduction: Introduction The Kingdom of Belgium and The Kingdom of the Netherlands agreed to submit, a dispute concerning the reactivation of the Iron Rhine ......

Immigration Law
9th Jul 2019
Introduction: This essay will examine the criteria for the convention ground of membership of a particular social group and will assess how the Law Lords have been able to extend this concept to enable them to deal with asylum claims based on gender persecution....

Immunity Privileges of Official Individuals
9th Jul 2019
Introduction: Individual and State are not always in opposite sides to each other. Individual can also have immunity privileges when the matter is about heads of......

The Negotiability of the Bill of Lading
9th Jul 2019
Introduction: ‘Despite a bill of lading sometimes being stamped 'negotiable bill', the document does not have the status of negotiability and even ......

The Law of the Sea Tribunal
9th Jul 2019
Introduction: This article discusses the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea and its relevance. The U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea seems to contemplate fairly extensive jurisdiction for the Tribunal,...

Hamburg Rules for International Carriage
9th Jul 2019
Introduction: In a world comprising cargo owning nations, and ship owning nations, and where most nations are both, there is a continual balancing of risk allocation concerning the damage or loss of sea-borne cargo....

Trade Mark Quality
9th Jul 2019
Introduction: An end consumer is deceived if he buys a good presuming it to have been originated from a certain source where actually it is not. The trade mark......

Human Rights - Abortion, A Woman’s Right
9th Jul 2019
Introduction: Occasionally, for political, religious, health or feminist reasons, the debate on the abortion issues is disclosed, the debate of this social......

Dumping and International Price Discrimination
5th Jul 2019
Introduction: Dumping is, in general, a situation of international price discrimination where the price of a product which is sold to the importing country is less than the price of the same product when sold in the market of the exporting country....

Subsidies Under the SCM Agreement
5th Jul 2019
Introduction: Undoubtedly, the law relating to the development and administration of the use of subsidies developing is one of the most difficult areas of international economic policy and rule making....

An Analysis of the Cedaw
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: Beyond general human rights instruments, there are a few very important specialised treaties relating to equality and non-discrimination. The two instruments that come to mind foremost in this regard are the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD, 1966)...

Transformation of GATT into the WTO
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: The main questioning on the reasons that led to the replacement of the GATT to WTO of is considered as one most important questions on this topic ......

Public Policy in International Arbitrations
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: Public policy can be generally defined as an .attempt by the government to address a public issue. According to Lord Truro, “Public policy is .that principle of law which holds that no subject can lawfully do, which has a tendency to be injurious...

A Short History of the UN
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: The international organization known as the United Nations was founded in 1945 after the already existent League of Nations failed ......

Human Rights Essays
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: Human Rights Essays - Use Our Free Law Essays To Help You With Your Law Course...

Lender of Last Resort
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: The concept of the lender of last resort (LOLR) owes its origins to Sir Francis Barings, who in 1797 referred to the Bank of England as the dernier resort from which all banks may get liquidity in times of crisis.[1]...

Definition of Relevant Market
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: definition of relevant market. This piece will examine the definition of the relevant market as it applies to EU competition law and in doing so identify its place in the application of competition law to the conduct of companies.....

Characterization of Applicable Laws
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: Private International Law This is a two-part essay dealing, in the first part, on the question of theories in private international law while the s......

Plant Breeders Rights
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: The concept of Intellectual Property was originally not extended to include plant variety management....

The Anglo-Norwegian Fisheries Case
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: Since 1911 British trawlers had been seized and condemned for violating measures taken by the Norwegian government specifying the limits within which fishing was prohibited to foreigners....

Application of Global Human Right Laws
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: Human rights and fundamental freedoms are the birthright of all human beings; their protection and promotion is the first responsibility ......

Documentary Letter of Credit
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: Every business transaction consist of at least two parties that are the importer and exporter. In addition, some of the transactions involve not ......

Rules of Private International Law
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: Statement of Purpose and Hypothesis The purpose of this project is to discuss the application of traditional rules of international private law ......

Right to Privacy as a Human Right
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: ‘Civilization is the progress towards a society of privacy’ - Ayn Rand, The Fountainhead Curiously enough, although the right to housing ......

The Principle of Arbitrator Immunity
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: The key concern of this note is to investigate the principle of arbitrator immunity and further evaluate whether section 22 of the Arbitration Act ......

Origin of Public Private Partnerships
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: Public-Private partnerships (PPP) have over the years grown tremendously across the globe. This is due to the increasing desire of state ......

TPIMs and Control Order Conditions
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: First, I intend to investigate what a control order is, and why the issue is problematic pursuant to Article 5 ECHR; the right to liberty ......

Human Trafficking Dissertation
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: Human Trafficking has been considered to be a violation against humanity around 200 years ago and today, it is seen as an instance of modern-day slavery....

Protection of Consumers in Online Sales
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: This research paper will focus on the protection of consumers in online sales, because since the opening to a commercialization use of the first ......

The Notion of a Threat
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: As the notion of a threat to the peace has noticeable change, enforcement of Article 39 has to be adapted to suit for current situations....

Seaworthiness in Shipping and Carriage
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: In almost all shipping and carriage of goods by sea cases the issue of seaworthiness is considered the corner stone in these cases. It importance comes from the fact of its direct relation with both the commercial law and maritime law. Seaworthiness affects the liability of the carrier, the marine insurance, the environment and many issues related to carriage of goods by sea....

Carbon-Credits
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: There has been a tremendous change in the Earth�s atmosphere since mid 20th Century....

Law of Carriage of Goods
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: This memorandum of advice has been prepared at the request of the Attorney-General who is aware of developments in the law relating to the carriage of goods by sea, in particular the formulation and opening for signature of the Rotterdam Rules....

CIF Contracts in Transportation Law
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: English law relating to international trade appears to protect the rights of the buyer, by making express provisions for them in legislation....

Computer Programmes Per Se
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: Sometime back the software industry in the developing countries like India, China, Brazil etc, created very little new and valuable intellectual property, with the development of the intellectual property not being essential to the development and growth of this industry....

The Legality of Military Humanitarian Intervention
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: The doctrine of humanitarian intervention is one of the most highly controversial issues in the world today. Many interventions have been made under the veil of humanitarian reasons, such as the US intervention in Iraq in 1990....

R v Chan Wing-Siu
3rd Jul 2019
Introduction: On May 31st 1980, the Appellant along with two others, in Kowloon, entered the premises of the two victims (a husband and wife) in order to collect a debt....

Property Rights of Women
2nd Jul 2019
Introduction: In this project, I shall focus on the 174th Law Commission report along with property rights of women in Hindu Law. The project shall be divided into two sections and a conclusion....

Doctrine of Public Trust
2nd Jul 2019
Introduction: The doctrine of public trust has evolved over the years to emerge as one of the core principles for the judiciary to substantiate the legitimacy of governmental action that interferes with the use by the general public of natural resources....

Cybersquatting and Typo-Squatting
2nd Jul 2019
Introduction: URL – Universal Resource Locator, the complete address of any resource available on the internet, e.g. a website's location on the Internet that consists of a communications protocol such as hypertext transfer protocol...

Torture as a Jus Cogens Norm
2nd Jul 2019
Introduction: If ever a phenomenon was outlawed unreservedly and unequivocally it is torture”; a statement that should have no trouble gaining wide support on an international plain....

Law for the Travel and Tourism Industry
2nd Jul 2019
Introduction: Today, hospitality managers are required not only to understand the day to day operation of their operation but the legal aspect of hospitality management. Barth (2008) states that It can be said that the actions of the hospitality manager will determine whether the business become the subject of litigation....

Comment on Patenting Sporting Apparatus
2nd Jul 2019
Introduction: The longest standing, best known, and arguably, economically most valuable form of protection of rights provided by the law of intellectual property comes in the form of the patent....

The Protection of Life and Property
2nd Jul 2019
Introduction: The protection of life and property is axiomatic in every civilized society and because it is impossible for the State to do so on every occasion – as law enforcement officers cannot be omni-present –, the individual is given the right...

Nature of Human Rights in Sri Lanka
2nd Jul 2019
Introduction: Fundamental Rights in Sri Lanka - a documentary is written by Justice S. Sharvananda a former Chief of justice......

When to Break Confidentiality
2nd Jul 2019
Introduction: Although not yet complete, there a many international organizations working hard at developing a document titled Universal Declaration of Ethical ......

Purposes of the World Trade Organisation
2nd Jul 2019
Introduction: One Of The Main Purposes Of The World Trade Organisation (WTO) Rules Is To Promote Trade Liberalisation, That Is, The Elimination Or Reduction Of Barriers To Trade’....

Public Law
30th Jun 2019
Introduction: Drawing upon the constitutional and democratic models you have studied, explain the range and effectiveness of attempts to constrain arbitrary power....

The Right to Die
30th Jun 2019
Introduction: Matthew Donnelly loved life but he wanted to die. Skin cancer was torturing his body. He had lost his nose, left hand, two fingers ......

International Sports Law
30th Jun 2019
Introduction: Within sports competition, negligence is the most common cause of people who suffer physical or psychological harm or injury. According to Collins (1984, p 39),...

Drugs in Sport
30th Jun 2019
Introduction: As of the 1st of January 2009 the World anti-doping agency (WADA) implemented an updated version of its 2004 ‘whereabouts’ rule, meaning that top elite athletes in all areas of sport must provide WADA with knowledge of their whereabouts...

The Advent of New Technologies
30th Jun 2019
Introduction: The advent of new technologies such as the internet and other networks have changed the business world and provided the trading processes in e-business more efficiency....

Puerto Rico Court System
28th Jun 2019
Introduction: There is much internal and external debate as to whether Puerto Rico should or should not become a state. The residents of Puerto Rico ......

Non Signatories in Arbitration
28th Jun 2019
Introduction: The doctrine of privity of contract posits that only parties to a contract may claim under or be claimed against the contract. Applying ......

Freedom of Expression and Right To Privacy
28th Jun 2019
Introduction: The brief deals with Articles 8 and 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). It investigates the right to privacy and the right ......

R v Mullen [2000] QB 520
27th Jun 2019
Introduction: Mullen was brought back to England from Zimbabwe due to being wanted by the police. Upon his arrival, he was arrested and later convicted of conspiracy......

What is Terrorism?
27th Jun 2019
Introduction: What is Terrorism? How should we define it? Despite the vast publicity, the subject has seldom received sensible answers....

The Principle of Autonomy
27th Jun 2019
Introduction: The principle of autonomy is that autonomy allows consenting homosexual to be in a relationship....

Dissertation Pre Bosman and Beyond
27th Jun 2019
Introduction: The European Court of Justice’s (ECJ) decision in Union Royale Belge des Societes de Football Association...

A Committee System
27th Jun 2019
Introduction: A committee system mainly made up with a small number of parliamentary members appointed to deal with particular areas or issues originating in the parliamentary democracy. Select committees exist in the British Parliament......

The Death With Dignity Act
27th Jun 2019
Introduction: This paper explored the medical ethics behind physician-assisted suicide stemming from the Death with Dignity act enacted ......

Marketing and Image ‘Rights’
26th Jun 2019
Introduction: The all-encompassing use of digital technology has stranded the world of Intellectual property rights at crossroads. As a consequence the ......

Corporations and International Business Law
25th Jun 2019
Introduction: The UK’s Company Act 1985 and 1989 has been repealed with Companies Act 2006 and has brought a tremendous change in the attitude of business law in today’s generation....

Issues in the Judicial System of Cambodia
25th Jun 2019
Introduction: The court system in each country is governed by the Judicial branch. In Cambodia, the judicial system is usually criticized by the citizens ......

How Rigid Should a States Constitution be?
25th Jun 2019
Introduction: The state is the political organisation which is governed by a group of people known as the government, when a government of a state is mentioned ......

Cross-border Trade and Trademark Protection
25th Jun 2019
Introduction: Parallel imports in today�s global economics represent great concern for the producers, who are trying to secure their investments and goodwill....

Potential Problems Using Electronic Contracts
25th Jun 2019
Introduction: The brief will investigate the potential problems that can arise in electronic contracts. It will discuss some of the problems and discuss how the ......

Constitutional Document
25th Jun 2019
Introduction: After critically analyzing and evaluating above facts we can identify what is the essence of the British constitution. Is it the unwritten nature of the British Constitution? Or whose dominant characteristic is the sovereignty of Parliament......

Defining Intellectual Property Law
25th Jun 2019
Introduction: Critically Analyse The Extent To Which Intellectual Property Law Appropriately Balances The Needs Of Consumers, Creators / Innovators And The Public Interest....

The Mahkutai - 1996
25th Jun 2019
Introduction: A cargo owner contracted with a charterer to organize for the transportation and delivery of their cargo with a bills of lading which contained a......

Corporate Governance
24th Jun 2019
Introduction: Corporate governance is a term that primarily refers to the rules, processes or laws by which businesses are monitored, managed and controlled....

Enforcement of a Foreign Judgment
24th Jun 2019
Introduction: It is effortless to get a Judgment always than enforcing it. An applicant who, for instance, successfully sues in Italy for breach of contract ......

Discussion of Corporate Manslaughter
24th Jun 2019
Introduction: Table of Contents Table of Cases AG’s Reference (No. 2 of 1999) [2000] QB 796 10 Lennard’s Carrying Co Ltd v Asiatic Petroleum Co Ltd .......

Intellectual Property Rights
24th Jun 2019
Introduction: Concept An intellectual property right pertains to any original creation of the human intellect such as artists, library, technical or scientific ......

Yip-Chiu-Cheung v R
24th Jun 2019
Introduction: The defendant entered into an agreement with an undercover narcotics officer in a hotel in Hong Kong. The agreement was that the defendant was to......

Refuge for Ships in Distress
24th Jun 2019
Introduction: The right of ships in distress to seek refuge in ports has been long recognized in customary international law....

Public Institutions and Parliament
24th Jun 2019
Introduction: Public Institutions and Parliament. To illustrate the point, it must be said that the vast majority of countries have a written constitution, videlicet, a single document which encompasses all of the above, for example the Constitution of the USA (within which is found the......

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994
24th Jun 2019
Introduction: The GATT was most recently negotiated between the members of the WTO in the so-called Uruguay Round of 1986-1994, following previous negotiations....

Selmouni v France (2000) 29 EHRR 403
21st Jun 2019
Introduction: Case Summary of Selmouni v France (2000). European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), Article 3 (Prohibition on Torture) and Article 6 (Right to a Fair Trial)....

Saadi v Italy and Chahal v UK
21st Jun 2019
Introduction: Case Summary of Saadi v Italy (2008) 24 BHRC 123, 125 -142 and Chahal v United Kingdom (1996) 23 EHRR 413, 74. Article 3 ECHR...

Varga And Others v Hungary 2015
21st Jun 2019
Introduction: Varga And Others v Hungary 2015 ECHR 14097/12, 45135/12, 73712/12, 34001/13, 44055/13, and 64586/13...

Z v UK Case Summary
21st Jun 2019
Introduction: Z and Others v United Kingdom (Application No 29392/95). The applicants, four siblings, Z, a girl born in 1982, A, a boy born in 1984......

No Legal Duty to Save Someone in Distress
21st Jun 2019
Introduction: In Hong Kong, there is generally no legal duty to save someone in distress. Liability for a failure to act will only arise when a legal duty to act......

European Convention on Human Rights 1950
18th Jun 2019
Introduction: Following the Second World War and the horrors against humanity that had followed it, the United Nations had been given the impetus that was required in order for them to create a modern international law of human rights....

Archer v Williams - 2003
18th Jun 2019
Introduction: The claimant (A) was the wife of a well-known politician. A previously employed the defendant (W) as a personal assistant....

Hinds v The Queen [1977]
17th Jun 2019
Introduction: JAMAICA - CONSTITUTIONAL LAW - GUN COURTS ACT - MANDATORY SENTENCE DETERMINABLE BY EXECUTIVE BODY...

A and others v UK
17th Jun 2019
Introduction: The case concerned the indefinite detention of foreign prisoners in the United Kingdom prison 'Belmarsh'....

A v UK - 1998
17th Jun 2019
Introduction: A, a nine year old boy, was discovered to have numerous bruises following an examination by a paediatrician, which indicated that......

Chahal v UK - Case Summary
17th Jun 2019
Introduction: C, an Indian citizen, was given indefinite leave to remain in the UK after entering illegally. In 1984 he visited India and......

Green v Green 2003
15th Jun 2019
Introduction: The complainant and defendant met when they were both married to another partner. In 1973, they formed a relationship......

Meyer v Riddick
15th Jun 2019
Introduction: Joint tenancy and the interests of beneficiaries under a trust in the property....

Chung Chi Cheung v R - 1939
14th Jun 2019
Introduction: The appellant (C), a British subject, who was cabin boy on board a Chinese Maritime Customs cruiser - a foreign armed public ship......

Anti-Corruption Measures in Ghana and Kenya
11th Jun 2019
Introduction: Since Ghana and Kenya gained independence in 1957 and 1963 respectively, there have been serious allegations of corruption involving high-ranking government officials....

Writing a masters Law Dissertation
11th Jun 2019
Introduction: For many students the completion of their LLM dissertation may well be the first occasion that they have been faced with writing such a lengthy......

What is an LLM?
11th Jun 2019
Introduction: An abbreviation for the Latin Legum Magister. The Master of Laws is a postgraduate law degree giving a student the opportunity to progress their......

Solutions to Nationwide Injunctions
11th Jun 2019
Introduction: Part of what makes the debate over nationwide injunctions so complex is that there are powerful values on both sides of the debate....

Land Law Problem Question Example
11th Jun 2019
Introduction: Amarjit was the owner of a freehold property known as Ashdown Farm, title to which was unregistered when he purchased it in 1988....

Alternative Dispute Resolution Methods
11th Jun 2019
Introduction: Due to the rising interest of alternative methods to resolve disputes such as the process of arbitration is that the process is personalized to the specific dispute. ...

WTO - General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994
7th Jun 2019
Introduction: The World Trade Organization (WTO) and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 ('GATT') are together part of an effort to bring about international free trade....

Issues of ISIS and International Laws
7th Jun 2019
Introduction: An essay on the lgal situation of ISIS in international law, and the legitimacy of use of force in self-defence against the Islamic State....

Challenges for International Justice
7th Jun 2019
Introduction: Various ways in which the interaction between national legal systems and international(ized) criminal tribunals can complicate the achievement of the core aims of international justice....